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Cephalometric pattern and nasal patency in children with primary snoring: the evidence of a direct correlation.

Zicari AM, Duse M, Occasi F, Luzzi V, Ortolani E, Bardanzellu F, Bertin S, Polimeni A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers.We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT) in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4-6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032).Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base), NS∧Ar (growth predictor), sumangle, FMA (total divergence), SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence), BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern), Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space), AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers.

Objective: To investigate the correlation between rhinomanometric and cephalometric parameters in children with primary snoring (PS), without apnea or gas exchange abnormalities.

Materials and methods: Thirty children with habitual snoring (16 females and 14 males) aged 4-8 years (mean age 6.85±1.51 years) were selected by a SDB validate questionnaire. All subjects underwent lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographies.

Results: In our sample 10 children (33%) had snoring 3 nights/week, 11 (37%) 4-6 nights/week and 9 (30%) every night/week. Overall 7 patients (23.3%) were affected by adenoid hypertrophy (AH), 4 (13.3%) by tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) and 13 (43.3%) by AH and TH. We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT) in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4-6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032). Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base), NS∧Ar (growth predictor), sumangle, FMA (total divergence), SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence), BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern), Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space), AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra).

Conclusion: The present study supports the relationship between nasal obstruction and specific craniofacial characteristics in children with primary snoring and lead us to hypothesize that nasal obstruction might explain the indirect link between snoring and cephalometric alterations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlations between nasal patency as fraction of predicted values of nasal flows, BaN∧PtGn, the upper angle measured between total cranic base (BaN) and facial axis (Pt Gn) (r 0.570; p<0.001) and AH-C3 H, the horizontal distance from AH to C3 (r 0.46; p = 0.009).
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pone-0111675-g003: Correlations between nasal patency as fraction of predicted values of nasal flows, BaN∧PtGn, the upper angle measured between total cranic base (BaN) and facial axis (Pt Gn) (r 0.570; p<0.001) and AH-C3 H, the horizontal distance from AH to C3 (r 0.46; p = 0.009).

Mentions: Concerning nasal patency, the fraction of predicted values of nasal flows at the rhinomanometric evaluation did not vary for sex and AH and/or TH (p = 0.52; p>0.05) even though significant correlations were found with ANB, NS∧Ar, sumangle, FMA, SnaSnp∧GoMe, BaN∧PtGn, Phw1_PsP, AHC3H, as shown in Figure 3 and reported in Table 2.


Cephalometric pattern and nasal patency in children with primary snoring: the evidence of a direct correlation.

Zicari AM, Duse M, Occasi F, Luzzi V, Ortolani E, Bardanzellu F, Bertin S, Polimeni A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Correlations between nasal patency as fraction of predicted values of nasal flows, BaN∧PtGn, the upper angle measured between total cranic base (BaN) and facial axis (Pt Gn) (r 0.570; p<0.001) and AH-C3 H, the horizontal distance from AH to C3 (r 0.46; p = 0.009).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4216138&req=5

pone-0111675-g003: Correlations between nasal patency as fraction of predicted values of nasal flows, BaN∧PtGn, the upper angle measured between total cranic base (BaN) and facial axis (Pt Gn) (r 0.570; p<0.001) and AH-C3 H, the horizontal distance from AH to C3 (r 0.46; p = 0.009).
Mentions: Concerning nasal patency, the fraction of predicted values of nasal flows at the rhinomanometric evaluation did not vary for sex and AH and/or TH (p = 0.52; p>0.05) even though significant correlations were found with ANB, NS∧Ar, sumangle, FMA, SnaSnp∧GoMe, BaN∧PtGn, Phw1_PsP, AHC3H, as shown in Figure 3 and reported in Table 2.

Bottom Line: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers.We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT) in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4-6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032).Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base), NS∧Ar (growth predictor), sumangle, FMA (total divergence), SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence), BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern), Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space), AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers.

Objective: To investigate the correlation between rhinomanometric and cephalometric parameters in children with primary snoring (PS), without apnea or gas exchange abnormalities.

Materials and methods: Thirty children with habitual snoring (16 females and 14 males) aged 4-8 years (mean age 6.85±1.51 years) were selected by a SDB validate questionnaire. All subjects underwent lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographies.

Results: In our sample 10 children (33%) had snoring 3 nights/week, 11 (37%) 4-6 nights/week and 9 (30%) every night/week. Overall 7 patients (23.3%) were affected by adenoid hypertrophy (AH), 4 (13.3%) by tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) and 13 (43.3%) by AH and TH. We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT) in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4-6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032). Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base), NS∧Ar (growth predictor), sumangle, FMA (total divergence), SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence), BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern), Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space), AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra).

Conclusion: The present study supports the relationship between nasal obstruction and specific craniofacial characteristics in children with primary snoring and lead us to hypothesize that nasal obstruction might explain the indirect link between snoring and cephalometric alterations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus