Limits...
The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context.

Lacoeuilhe A, Machon N, Julien JF, Le Bocq A, Kerbiriou C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide.Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting.Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Museum of Natural History, Ecology and Sciences Conservation Center, CESCO-UMR7204 MNHN-CNRS-UPMC, Paris, France; Électricité de France S.A. (EDF), R & D, EPI Department, Moret sur Loing, France.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of time after sunset on the activity of the tolerant group (A) and the intolerant group (B).Approximate significance of smoothing terms compared to linear effect: P<0.0001 for two groups; GAM (library mgcv). The y-axis is the value taken by the centered smooth. It is a relative measure of bat activity (relative numbers of calls). It is the contribution (at a value of the covariate) made to the fitted value for that smooth function.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215844&req=5

pone-0103042-g001: Effect of time after sunset on the activity of the tolerant group (A) and the intolerant group (B).Approximate significance of smoothing terms compared to linear effect: P<0.0001 for two groups; GAM (library mgcv). The y-axis is the value taken by the centered smooth. It is a relative measure of bat activity (relative numbers of calls). It is the contribution (at a value of the covariate) made to the fitted value for that smooth function.

Mentions: In a final analysis, we studied the relationship between the trait “artificial light sensitivity” and the pattern of change in bat activities during the night. Bat species were classified according to their sensitivity to light intensity based upon our study, i.e., tolerant bats, for which activity was most likely positively influenced by light intensity vs. intolerant bats, for which activity appeared to be negatively influenced by light intensity. Species that showed no significant trend were excluded from this analysis. Because we expected a nonlinear effect of time after sunset, we used a general additive model (GAM) with time after sunset as the smoothed term [29], [28]. The fixed effects were the same as those found in the previous analysis with GLM (Table F in File S1). We reported the numerical results of the GLM and plotted the GAM (Figure 1) (R package mgcv) [30]. All analyses were performed with R version 2.13.0 [31].


The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context.

Lacoeuilhe A, Machon N, Julien JF, Le Bocq A, Kerbiriou C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Effect of time after sunset on the activity of the tolerant group (A) and the intolerant group (B).Approximate significance of smoothing terms compared to linear effect: P<0.0001 for two groups; GAM (library mgcv). The y-axis is the value taken by the centered smooth. It is a relative measure of bat activity (relative numbers of calls). It is the contribution (at a value of the covariate) made to the fitted value for that smooth function.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215844&req=5

pone-0103042-g001: Effect of time after sunset on the activity of the tolerant group (A) and the intolerant group (B).Approximate significance of smoothing terms compared to linear effect: P<0.0001 for two groups; GAM (library mgcv). The y-axis is the value taken by the centered smooth. It is a relative measure of bat activity (relative numbers of calls). It is the contribution (at a value of the covariate) made to the fitted value for that smooth function.
Mentions: In a final analysis, we studied the relationship between the trait “artificial light sensitivity” and the pattern of change in bat activities during the night. Bat species were classified according to their sensitivity to light intensity based upon our study, i.e., tolerant bats, for which activity was most likely positively influenced by light intensity vs. intolerant bats, for which activity appeared to be negatively influenced by light intensity. Species that showed no significant trend were excluded from this analysis. Because we expected a nonlinear effect of time after sunset, we used a general additive model (GAM) with time after sunset as the smoothed term [29], [28]. The fixed effects were the same as those found in the previous analysis with GLM (Table F in File S1). We reported the numerical results of the GLM and plotted the GAM (Figure 1) (R package mgcv) [30]. All analyses were performed with R version 2.13.0 [31].

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide.Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting.Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Museum of Natural History, Ecology and Sciences Conservation Center, CESCO-UMR7204 MNHN-CNRS-UPMC, Paris, France; Électricité de France S.A. (EDF), R & D, EPI Department, Moret sur Loing, France.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus