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Recovery of crystallographic texture in remineralized dental enamel.

Siddiqui S, Anderson P, Al-Jawad M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization.Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density.The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries is the most prevalent disease encountered by people of all ages around the world. Chemical changes occurring in the oral environment during the caries process alter the crystallography and microstructure of dental enamel resulting in loss of mechanical function. Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization. The motivation for this study was to develop understanding of the caries process at the crystallographic level in order to contribute towards a long term solution. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning electron microscopy and scanning microradiography have been used to correlate enamel crystallography, microstructure and mineral concentration respectively in enamel affected by natural caries and following artificial demineralization and remineralization regimes. In particular, the extent of destruction and re-formation of this complex structure has been measured. 2D diffraction patterns collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) and position of the (002) Bragg reflection within selected regions of interest in each tooth slice, and then correlated with the microstructure and local mineral mass. The results revealed that caries and artificial demineralization cause a large reduction in crystallographic texture which is coupled with the loss of mineral mass. Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density. The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel. Combining microstructural and crystallographic characterization aids the understanding of caries and erosion processes and assists in the progress towards developing therapeutic treatments to allow affected enamel to regain structural integrity.

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Changes in the FWHM.A track (highlighted in Fig. 1) taken through each tooth slice (artificial demineralization, artificial remineralization, healthy control and natural caries) from enamel surface to EDJ measuring the change in FWHM of the azimuthal peaks of the (002) reflection.
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pone-0108879-g003: Changes in the FWHM.A track (highlighted in Fig. 1) taken through each tooth slice (artificial demineralization, artificial remineralization, healthy control and natural caries) from enamel surface to EDJ measuring the change in FWHM of the azimuthal peaks of the (002) reflection.

Mentions: Fig. 3 shows the changes in the crystallographic texture (FWHM) of the (002) reflection (from the track shown in Fig. 1) as a function of position for all four tooth samples. Healthy enamel shows a gradual decrease in FWHM from the surface to deeper within the enamel. The first 80 µm from the surface of the artificially demineralized enamel exhibits significantly higher FWHM values, followed by a steep decrease moving further away from the surface until a depth of 275 µm, after which there is a slight rise. The first 20 µm of the natural caries enamel has similar FWHM values to that of healthy enamel with the highest values seen between 80–100 µm. In the artificially demineralized and subsequently remineralized specimen, the surface enamel has FWHM values similar to that of healthy enamel, and continues to follow the same trend as healthy enamel for most of the track, deviating slightly towards the EDJ.


Recovery of crystallographic texture in remineralized dental enamel.

Siddiqui S, Anderson P, Al-Jawad M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Changes in the FWHM.A track (highlighted in Fig. 1) taken through each tooth slice (artificial demineralization, artificial remineralization, healthy control and natural caries) from enamel surface to EDJ measuring the change in FWHM of the azimuthal peaks of the (002) reflection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215832&req=5

pone-0108879-g003: Changes in the FWHM.A track (highlighted in Fig. 1) taken through each tooth slice (artificial demineralization, artificial remineralization, healthy control and natural caries) from enamel surface to EDJ measuring the change in FWHM of the azimuthal peaks of the (002) reflection.
Mentions: Fig. 3 shows the changes in the crystallographic texture (FWHM) of the (002) reflection (from the track shown in Fig. 1) as a function of position for all four tooth samples. Healthy enamel shows a gradual decrease in FWHM from the surface to deeper within the enamel. The first 80 µm from the surface of the artificially demineralized enamel exhibits significantly higher FWHM values, followed by a steep decrease moving further away from the surface until a depth of 275 µm, after which there is a slight rise. The first 20 µm of the natural caries enamel has similar FWHM values to that of healthy enamel with the highest values seen between 80–100 µm. In the artificially demineralized and subsequently remineralized specimen, the surface enamel has FWHM values similar to that of healthy enamel, and continues to follow the same trend as healthy enamel for most of the track, deviating slightly towards the EDJ.

Bottom Line: Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization.Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density.The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries is the most prevalent disease encountered by people of all ages around the world. Chemical changes occurring in the oral environment during the caries process alter the crystallography and microstructure of dental enamel resulting in loss of mechanical function. Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization. The motivation for this study was to develop understanding of the caries process at the crystallographic level in order to contribute towards a long term solution. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning electron microscopy and scanning microradiography have been used to correlate enamel crystallography, microstructure and mineral concentration respectively in enamel affected by natural caries and following artificial demineralization and remineralization regimes. In particular, the extent of destruction and re-formation of this complex structure has been measured. 2D diffraction patterns collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture) and position of the (002) Bragg reflection within selected regions of interest in each tooth slice, and then correlated with the microstructure and local mineral mass. The results revealed that caries and artificial demineralization cause a large reduction in crystallographic texture which is coupled with the loss of mineral mass. Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density. The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel. Combining microstructural and crystallographic characterization aids the understanding of caries and erosion processes and assists in the progress towards developing therapeutic treatments to allow affected enamel to regain structural integrity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus