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Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

Sulaiman J, Gan HM, Yin WF, Chan KG - Front Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida.This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

No MeSH data available.


Abundance estimation of genes assigned to lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27 and 1.1.1.28) and branched-chain amino acid transferase (EC 2.6.1.42) relevant to soy sauce fermentation. Gene abundance was normalized to the number of reads and gene length.
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Figure 5: Abundance estimation of genes assigned to lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27 and 1.1.1.28) and branched-chain amino acid transferase (EC 2.6.1.42) relevant to soy sauce fermentation. Gene abundance was normalized to the number of reads and gene length.

Mentions: Inspection into the metabolic potential of traditional Chinese soy sauce revealed the microbial capability for adaptation. The genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation revealed the presence of cytochrome bd complex. The presence of cytochrome bd complex enhances microbial affinity to oxygen and is able to express under limited oxygen condition (Borisov et al., 2007). Furthermore, gene encoding for subunit H of the vacuolar H+-ATPase was absence in the microbial population of traditional Chinese soy sauce. Inspection of the glycolysis pathway revealed that the presence of gene encoding for the production of L-lactate (EC 1.1.27) and D-lactate (EC 1.1.1.28) dehydrogenase displayed fivefold decrease from day 0 to the sixth month of the fermentation process, correlating strongly with the relative abundance of LAB (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.99; p < 0.00001). The abundance of genes coding for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (EC 2.1.6.42) in valine, leucine, and isoflavones biosynthesis and degradation increased gradually after the first month (Figure 5) with a strong positive correlation with the relative abundance of yeast (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.81; p = 0.028). Although the ethanol concentration throughout the fermentation presented a moderate correlation with respect to the relative abundance of LAB (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = -0.69) and yeast (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.68), the p-value was not low enough to be statistically significant.


Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

Sulaiman J, Gan HM, Yin WF, Chan KG - Front Microbiol (2014)

Abundance estimation of genes assigned to lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27 and 1.1.1.28) and branched-chain amino acid transferase (EC 2.6.1.42) relevant to soy sauce fermentation. Gene abundance was normalized to the number of reads and gene length.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215829&req=5

Figure 5: Abundance estimation of genes assigned to lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27 and 1.1.1.28) and branched-chain amino acid transferase (EC 2.6.1.42) relevant to soy sauce fermentation. Gene abundance was normalized to the number of reads and gene length.
Mentions: Inspection into the metabolic potential of traditional Chinese soy sauce revealed the microbial capability for adaptation. The genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation revealed the presence of cytochrome bd complex. The presence of cytochrome bd complex enhances microbial affinity to oxygen and is able to express under limited oxygen condition (Borisov et al., 2007). Furthermore, gene encoding for subunit H of the vacuolar H+-ATPase was absence in the microbial population of traditional Chinese soy sauce. Inspection of the glycolysis pathway revealed that the presence of gene encoding for the production of L-lactate (EC 1.1.27) and D-lactate (EC 1.1.1.28) dehydrogenase displayed fivefold decrease from day 0 to the sixth month of the fermentation process, correlating strongly with the relative abundance of LAB (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.99; p < 0.00001). The abundance of genes coding for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (EC 2.1.6.42) in valine, leucine, and isoflavones biosynthesis and degradation increased gradually after the first month (Figure 5) with a strong positive correlation with the relative abundance of yeast (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.81; p = 0.028). Although the ethanol concentration throughout the fermentation presented a moderate correlation with respect to the relative abundance of LAB (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = -0.69) and yeast (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.68), the p-value was not low enough to be statistically significant.

Bottom Line: Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida.This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

No MeSH data available.