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Multisensory training can promote or impede visual perceptual learning of speech stimuli: visual-tactile vs. visual-auditory training.

Eberhardt SP, Auer ET, Bernstein LE - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, impeder and promoter effects were sought in normal-hearing adults who participated in lipreading training.Across this and previous studies, multisensory training effects depended on the functional relationship between pathways engaged during training.Two principles are proposed to account for stimulus effects: (1) Stimuli presented to the trainee's primary perceptual pathway will impede learning by a lower-rank pathway. (2) Stimuli presented to the trainee's lower rank perceptual pathway will promote learning by a higher-rank pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Communication Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, George Washington University Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
In a series of studies we have been investigating how multisensory training affects unisensory perceptual learning with speech stimuli. Previously, we reported that audiovisual (AV) training with speech stimuli can promote auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in normal-hearing adults but can impede learning in congenitally deaf adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Here, impeder and promoter effects were sought in normal-hearing adults who participated in lipreading training. In Experiment 1, visual-only (VO) training on paired associations between CVCVC nonsense word videos and nonsense pictures demonstrated that VO words could be learned to a high level of accuracy even by poor lipreaders. In Experiment 2, visual-auditory (VA) training in the same paradigm but with the addition of synchronous vocoded acoustic speech impeded VO learning of the stimuli in the paired-associates paradigm. In Experiment 3, the vocoded AO stimuli were shown to be less informative than the VO speech. Experiment 4 combined vibrotactile speech stimuli with the visual stimuli during training. Vibrotactile stimuli were shown to promote visual perceptual learning. In Experiment 5, no-training controls were used to show that training with visual speech carried over to consonant identification of untrained CVCVC stimuli but not to lipreading words in sentences. Across this and previous studies, multisensory training effects depended on the functional relationship between pathways engaged during training. Two principles are proposed to account for stimulus effects: (1) Stimuli presented to the trainee's primary perceptual pathway will impede learning by a lower-rank pathway. (2) Stimuli presented to the trainee's lower rank perceptual pathway will promote learning by a higher-rank pathway. The mechanisms supporting these principles are discussed in light of multisensory reverse hierarchy theory (RHT).

No MeSH data available.


Time series of paired-associates mean scores of VO and VT participants who achieved criterion (70.9% correct) on Block 3 of Lists 2–4 and were used for the extended analyses in Experiment 4.
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Figure 7: Time series of paired-associates mean scores of VO and VT participants who achieved criterion (70.9% correct) on Block 3 of Lists 2–4 and were used for the extended analyses in Experiment 4.

Mentions: Careful examination of the training scores for the VO and VT participants suggested that the overall results reported just above might be obscuring a vibrotactile promoter effect. In the past, we have analyzed results across groups after setting a criterion for success during training. Therefore, we set a criterion level of 70.9% during the final training block of Lists 2–4 as the lowest level of training performance that qualified as successful training. This resulted in retaining 14 of the 20 VO participants and 12 of the 21 VT participants. Figure 7 shows the time series for training and testing with paired-associates for these subgroups.


Multisensory training can promote or impede visual perceptual learning of speech stimuli: visual-tactile vs. visual-auditory training.

Eberhardt SP, Auer ET, Bernstein LE - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Time series of paired-associates mean scores of VO and VT participants who achieved criterion (70.9% correct) on Block 3 of Lists 2–4 and were used for the extended analyses in Experiment 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215828&req=5

Figure 7: Time series of paired-associates mean scores of VO and VT participants who achieved criterion (70.9% correct) on Block 3 of Lists 2–4 and were used for the extended analyses in Experiment 4.
Mentions: Careful examination of the training scores for the VO and VT participants suggested that the overall results reported just above might be obscuring a vibrotactile promoter effect. In the past, we have analyzed results across groups after setting a criterion for success during training. Therefore, we set a criterion level of 70.9% during the final training block of Lists 2–4 as the lowest level of training performance that qualified as successful training. This resulted in retaining 14 of the 20 VO participants and 12 of the 21 VT participants. Figure 7 shows the time series for training and testing with paired-associates for these subgroups.

Bottom Line: Here, impeder and promoter effects were sought in normal-hearing adults who participated in lipreading training.Across this and previous studies, multisensory training effects depended on the functional relationship between pathways engaged during training.Two principles are proposed to account for stimulus effects: (1) Stimuli presented to the trainee's primary perceptual pathway will impede learning by a lower-rank pathway. (2) Stimuli presented to the trainee's lower rank perceptual pathway will promote learning by a higher-rank pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Communication Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, George Washington University Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
In a series of studies we have been investigating how multisensory training affects unisensory perceptual learning with speech stimuli. Previously, we reported that audiovisual (AV) training with speech stimuli can promote auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in normal-hearing adults but can impede learning in congenitally deaf adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Here, impeder and promoter effects were sought in normal-hearing adults who participated in lipreading training. In Experiment 1, visual-only (VO) training on paired associations between CVCVC nonsense word videos and nonsense pictures demonstrated that VO words could be learned to a high level of accuracy even by poor lipreaders. In Experiment 2, visual-auditory (VA) training in the same paradigm but with the addition of synchronous vocoded acoustic speech impeded VO learning of the stimuli in the paired-associates paradigm. In Experiment 3, the vocoded AO stimuli were shown to be less informative than the VO speech. Experiment 4 combined vibrotactile speech stimuli with the visual stimuli during training. Vibrotactile stimuli were shown to promote visual perceptual learning. In Experiment 5, no-training controls were used to show that training with visual speech carried over to consonant identification of untrained CVCVC stimuli but not to lipreading words in sentences. Across this and previous studies, multisensory training effects depended on the functional relationship between pathways engaged during training. Two principles are proposed to account for stimulus effects: (1) Stimuli presented to the trainee's primary perceptual pathway will impede learning by a lower-rank pathway. (2) Stimuli presented to the trainee's lower rank perceptual pathway will promote learning by a higher-rank pathway. The mechanisms supporting these principles are discussed in light of multisensory reverse hierarchy theory (RHT).

No MeSH data available.