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Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect.

Dekerle M, Boulenger V, Hoen M, Meunier F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes.However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed.Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5304 Lyon, France ; University of Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1-4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Semantic priming effect (i.e., difference between RTs for unrelated and related targets; in ms) depending on the ratio of SC voices in the background over the total number of voices. 1SC EXP1, 1SC condition in Experiment 1 (1 SC voice; no SI voice); 2SC EXP1, 2SC condition in Experiment 1 (2 SC voices; no SI voice); 2SC/1SI EXP2, 2SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (2 SC voices; 1 SI voice); 1SC/1SI EXP2, 1SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (1 SC voice; 1 SI voice); and 2SC/2SI EXP3, 2SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (2 SC voices; 2 SI voices); 1SC/2SI EXP3, 1SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (1 SC voice; 2 SI voices).
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Figure 5: Semantic priming effect (i.e., difference between RTs for unrelated and related targets; in ms) depending on the ratio of SC voices in the background over the total number of voices. 1SC EXP1, 1SC condition in Experiment 1 (1 SC voice; no SI voice); 2SC EXP1, 2SC condition in Experiment 1 (2 SC voices; no SI voice); 2SC/1SI EXP2, 2SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (2 SC voices; 1 SI voice); 1SC/1SI EXP2, 1SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (1 SC voice; 1 SI voice); and 2SC/2SI EXP3, 2SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (2 SC voices; 2 SI voices); 1SC/2SI EXP3, 1SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (1 SC voice; 2 SI voices).

Mentions: To better analyze the impact of the SC/total voices ratio, we conducted post-hoc analyses. A HSD Tukey test showed that up to 4 voices in the background if the ratio of SC/total voices was inferior to 1/2, there was no significant semantic priming effect (Experiment 2. 1SC/1SI; Experiment 3. 1SC/2SI and 2SC/2SI). However, if the ratio was superior to 1/2, semantic priming was significant (Experiment 1: 1SC, p < 0.05 Cohen's d = 0.31; 2SC, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.35; Experiment 2. 2SC/1SI, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.31; cf Figure 5 and Table 4).


Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect.

Dekerle M, Boulenger V, Hoen M, Meunier F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Semantic priming effect (i.e., difference between RTs for unrelated and related targets; in ms) depending on the ratio of SC voices in the background over the total number of voices. 1SC EXP1, 1SC condition in Experiment 1 (1 SC voice; no SI voice); 2SC EXP1, 2SC condition in Experiment 1 (2 SC voices; no SI voice); 2SC/1SI EXP2, 2SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (2 SC voices; 1 SI voice); 1SC/1SI EXP2, 1SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (1 SC voice; 1 SI voice); and 2SC/2SI EXP3, 2SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (2 SC voices; 2 SI voices); 1SC/2SI EXP3, 1SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (1 SC voice; 2 SI voices).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215827&req=5

Figure 5: Semantic priming effect (i.e., difference between RTs for unrelated and related targets; in ms) depending on the ratio of SC voices in the background over the total number of voices. 1SC EXP1, 1SC condition in Experiment 1 (1 SC voice; no SI voice); 2SC EXP1, 2SC condition in Experiment 1 (2 SC voices; no SI voice); 2SC/1SI EXP2, 2SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (2 SC voices; 1 SI voice); 1SC/1SI EXP2, 1SC/1SI condition in Experiment 2 (1 SC voice; 1 SI voice); and 2SC/2SI EXP3, 2SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (2 SC voices; 2 SI voices); 1SC/2SI EXP3, 1SC/2SI condition in Experiment 3 (1 SC voice; 2 SI voices).
Mentions: To better analyze the impact of the SC/total voices ratio, we conducted post-hoc analyses. A HSD Tukey test showed that up to 4 voices in the background if the ratio of SC/total voices was inferior to 1/2, there was no significant semantic priming effect (Experiment 2. 1SC/1SI; Experiment 3. 1SC/2SI and 2SC/2SI). However, if the ratio was superior to 1/2, semantic priming was significant (Experiment 1: 1SC, p < 0.05 Cohen's d = 0.31; 2SC, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.35; Experiment 2. 2SC/1SI, p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.31; cf Figure 5 and Table 4).

Bottom Line: The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes.However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed.Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5304 Lyon, France ; University of Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1-4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus