Limits...
Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect.

Dekerle M, Boulenger V, Hoen M, Meunier F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes.However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed.Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5304 Lyon, France ; University of Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1-4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Example of a background in the 1SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S3, speaker 3 (see the legend of Figure 1 for other abbreviations). (B) Example of a background in the 2SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215827&req=5

Figure 2: (A) Example of a background in the 1SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S3, speaker 3 (see the legend of Figure 1 for other abbreviations). (B) Example of a background in the 2SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition).

Mentions: Recordings of S1 and S2, used in the previous experiment, were mixed with S3 following the previously established experimental lists. Targets were recorded by a French native male speaker (Target Speaker 2; age = 20) and were inserted into backgrounds 2 s after the start of the sequence (see Figure 2).


Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect.

Dekerle M, Boulenger V, Hoen M, Meunier F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

(A) Example of a background in the 1SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S3, speaker 3 (see the legend of Figure 1 for other abbreviations). (B) Example of a background in the 2SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215827&req=5

Figure 2: (A) Example of a background in the 1SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S3, speaker 3 (see the legend of Figure 1 for other abbreviations). (B) Example of a background in the 2SC/1SI condition of Experiment 2, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition).
Mentions: Recordings of S1 and S2, used in the previous experiment, were mixed with S3 following the previously established experimental lists. Targets were recorded by a French native male speaker (Target Speaker 2; age = 20) and were inserted into backgrounds 2 s after the start of the sequence (see Figure 2).

Bottom Line: The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes.However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed.Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5304 Lyon, France ; University of Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1-4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus