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Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect.

Dekerle M, Boulenger V, Hoen M, Meunier F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes.However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed.Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5304 Lyon, France ; University of Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1-4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Example of two backgrounds in the 1SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S1, speaker 1, LDT, Lexical Decision Task. (B) Example of a background in the 2SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S2, speaker 2.
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Figure 1: (A) Example of two backgrounds in the 1SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S1, speaker 1, LDT, Lexical Decision Task. (B) Example of a background in the 2SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S2, speaker 2.

Mentions: Target words were presented with a semantically related (related condition) or semantically unrelated background (unrelated condition). In the unrelated condition, SC voices pronounced words that were semantically related to each other but not to the target (see Figure 1). Backgrounds comprised 1 SC voice (1SC condition) or 2 SC voices (2SC condition). The 48 target words were divided into 4 groups of 12 words, the mean frequency did not differ significantly between the groups (F < 1), nor did the number of phonemes [M = 6.97, SD = 5.65; F(3, 44) = 1.1, n.s.] and phonological neighbors [M = 4.75, SD = 0.81; F(3, 44) = 2.2, n.s.]. Each group of twelve target words was assigned to a condition (1SC related, 1SC unrelated, 2SC related, 2SC unrelated) depending on the experimental list. The same was true for pseudo-words. Four experimental lists of 96 stimuli (i.e., 48 target words and 48 target pseudo-words) were created so that each target word was presented in each condition, but only once in a list (each participant was presented with one list only).


Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect.

Dekerle M, Boulenger V, Hoen M, Meunier F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

(A) Example of two backgrounds in the 1SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S1, speaker 1, LDT, Lexical Decision Task. (B) Example of a background in the 2SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S2, speaker 2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215827&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Example of two backgrounds in the 1SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S1, speaker 1, LDT, Lexical Decision Task. (B) Example of a background in the 2SC condition of Experiment 1, presented with a semantically related target word (left; related condition) or not (right; unrelated condition). S2, speaker 2.
Mentions: Target words were presented with a semantically related (related condition) or semantically unrelated background (unrelated condition). In the unrelated condition, SC voices pronounced words that were semantically related to each other but not to the target (see Figure 1). Backgrounds comprised 1 SC voice (1SC condition) or 2 SC voices (2SC condition). The 48 target words were divided into 4 groups of 12 words, the mean frequency did not differ significantly between the groups (F < 1), nor did the number of phonemes [M = 6.97, SD = 5.65; F(3, 44) = 1.1, n.s.] and phonological neighbors [M = 4.75, SD = 0.81; F(3, 44) = 2.2, n.s.]. Each group of twelve target words was assigned to a condition (1SC related, 1SC unrelated, 2SC related, 2SC unrelated) depending on the experimental list. The same was true for pseudo-words. Four experimental lists of 96 stimuli (i.e., 48 target words and 48 target pseudo-words) were created so that each target word was presented in each condition, but only once in a list (each participant was presented with one list only).

Bottom Line: The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes.However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed.Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 5304 Lyon, France ; University of Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1-4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus