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Embodiment of intersubjective time: relational dynamics as attractors in the temporal coordination of interpersonal behaviors and experiences.

Laroche J, Berardi AM, Brangier E - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: We then show that embodiment is essentially dynamical and therefore we describe experiential, behavioral and brain dynamics.Both lived temporality and the temporality of the living appear to be complex, multiscale phenomena.Overall, we propose that being together in time emerges from the relational dynamics of embodied interactions and their flexible co-regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Akoustic Arts R&D Laboratory Paris, France ; PErSEUs, Université de Lorraine Metz, France.

ABSTRACT
This paper addresses the issue of "being together," and more specifically the issue of "being together in time." We provide with an integrative framework that is inspired by phenomenology, the enactive approach and dynamical systems theories. To do so, we first define embodiment as a living and lived phenomenon that emerges from agent-world coupling. We then show that embodiment is essentially dynamical and therefore we describe experiential, behavioral and brain dynamics. Both lived temporality and the temporality of the living appear to be complex, multiscale phenomena. Next we discuss embodied dynamics in the context of interpersonal interactions, and briefly review the empirical literature on between-persons temporal coordination. Overall, we propose that being together in time emerges from the relational dynamics of embodied interactions and their flexible co-regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Experimental set-up of Auvray et al. (2009). (A) Technological device set up by Auvray et al. (2009). (B) Schematic illustration of the (invisible) virtual environment. Movements of the mouse displaced the receptor field of an avatar in a one-dimensional virtual environment. Whenever the receptor field overlaps the current position of another entity, the participant that manipulates this avatar receives a tactile stimulation. Reprinted from Auvray et al. (2009), with permission from Elsevier.
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Figure 1: Experimental set-up of Auvray et al. (2009). (A) Technological device set up by Auvray et al. (2009). (B) Schematic illustration of the (invisible) virtual environment. Movements of the mouse displaced the receptor field of an avatar in a one-dimensional virtual environment. Whenever the receptor field overlaps the current position of another entity, the participant that manipulates this avatar receives a tactile stimulation. Reprinted from Auvray et al. (2009), with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Auvray et al. (2009) empirically tracked the general dynamical structure of human interactions. Pairs of blindfolded participants manipulated a device that reduced their sensorimotor coupling to a strict minimum: each participant moved a mouse that displaced an avatar in a virtual environment and participants received a unique type of tactile stimulation whenever the receptor field of their avatar overlapped the position of an entity in that virtual environment (Figure 1). There was thus only one bit of information (0: no stimulation; 1: stimulation). In this context, participants couldn’t distinguish if the stimulations they received resulted from the crossing of their partner, or from the crossing of a lure that imitated the partner’s displacements. However, participants met each other a lot more often than they met the lure: they found each other without knowing they did. The difference between the two situations emerges at the collective level. The lure is disembodied: it doesn’t receive any stimulations that modify the internal dynamics of its behavior. Conversely, the partner is embodied and the overlap with its receptor field leads to a mutual stimulation. Even if all participants participant ignore what they do for the other (Lenay, 2010), they affect each other’s behaviors. They thereby got attracted toward a common pattern of behavior (a reversal of movements around the source of stimulation). In other words, they were oriented and coordinated by the mutual and common effects of the interaction process, without any awareness of the dynamical situation in which their behavior got entangled. This illustrates how the incompleteness of the encounter (i.e., what I do for the other escapes me, as well as what the dynamics of our patterns of relations do for us) allows for the interaction to move forward on its own. The coordination of behavior that is observed externally can thus emerge from the process of interaction and/or its regulation (Froese et al., 2012; Lenay and Stewart, 2012; see Auvray and Rohde, 2012, for a review of replications of the above experiment with both human participants and artificial agents). Boker et al. (2009) captured such kind of phenomenon in a somewhat more ecological experiment. They reduced the visible expressivity of one of two conversational partners by resynthesizing the movements of its realistic avatar. This effect was transparent to him, but visible to his partner, who enhanced the amplitude of his own movements, as if he were compensating for this lack of expressivity. The complementary regulation of coupling dynamics then became explicit as both partners ended up enhancing the expressivity of their movements, without any awareness to do so. Their behaviors became thus entangled in relational dynamics between their embodiment in a way that escaped them.


Embodiment of intersubjective time: relational dynamics as attractors in the temporal coordination of interpersonal behaviors and experiences.

Laroche J, Berardi AM, Brangier E - Front Psychol (2014)

Experimental set-up of Auvray et al. (2009). (A) Technological device set up by Auvray et al. (2009). (B) Schematic illustration of the (invisible) virtual environment. Movements of the mouse displaced the receptor field of an avatar in a one-dimensional virtual environment. Whenever the receptor field overlaps the current position of another entity, the participant that manipulates this avatar receives a tactile stimulation. Reprinted from Auvray et al. (2009), with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215825&req=5

Figure 1: Experimental set-up of Auvray et al. (2009). (A) Technological device set up by Auvray et al. (2009). (B) Schematic illustration of the (invisible) virtual environment. Movements of the mouse displaced the receptor field of an avatar in a one-dimensional virtual environment. Whenever the receptor field overlaps the current position of another entity, the participant that manipulates this avatar receives a tactile stimulation. Reprinted from Auvray et al. (2009), with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Auvray et al. (2009) empirically tracked the general dynamical structure of human interactions. Pairs of blindfolded participants manipulated a device that reduced their sensorimotor coupling to a strict minimum: each participant moved a mouse that displaced an avatar in a virtual environment and participants received a unique type of tactile stimulation whenever the receptor field of their avatar overlapped the position of an entity in that virtual environment (Figure 1). There was thus only one bit of information (0: no stimulation; 1: stimulation). In this context, participants couldn’t distinguish if the stimulations they received resulted from the crossing of their partner, or from the crossing of a lure that imitated the partner’s displacements. However, participants met each other a lot more often than they met the lure: they found each other without knowing they did. The difference between the two situations emerges at the collective level. The lure is disembodied: it doesn’t receive any stimulations that modify the internal dynamics of its behavior. Conversely, the partner is embodied and the overlap with its receptor field leads to a mutual stimulation. Even if all participants participant ignore what they do for the other (Lenay, 2010), they affect each other’s behaviors. They thereby got attracted toward a common pattern of behavior (a reversal of movements around the source of stimulation). In other words, they were oriented and coordinated by the mutual and common effects of the interaction process, without any awareness of the dynamical situation in which their behavior got entangled. This illustrates how the incompleteness of the encounter (i.e., what I do for the other escapes me, as well as what the dynamics of our patterns of relations do for us) allows for the interaction to move forward on its own. The coordination of behavior that is observed externally can thus emerge from the process of interaction and/or its regulation (Froese et al., 2012; Lenay and Stewart, 2012; see Auvray and Rohde, 2012, for a review of replications of the above experiment with both human participants and artificial agents). Boker et al. (2009) captured such kind of phenomenon in a somewhat more ecological experiment. They reduced the visible expressivity of one of two conversational partners by resynthesizing the movements of its realistic avatar. This effect was transparent to him, but visible to his partner, who enhanced the amplitude of his own movements, as if he were compensating for this lack of expressivity. The complementary regulation of coupling dynamics then became explicit as both partners ended up enhancing the expressivity of their movements, without any awareness to do so. Their behaviors became thus entangled in relational dynamics between their embodiment in a way that escaped them.

Bottom Line: We then show that embodiment is essentially dynamical and therefore we describe experiential, behavioral and brain dynamics.Both lived temporality and the temporality of the living appear to be complex, multiscale phenomena.Overall, we propose that being together in time emerges from the relational dynamics of embodied interactions and their flexible co-regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Akoustic Arts R&D Laboratory Paris, France ; PErSEUs, Université de Lorraine Metz, France.

ABSTRACT
This paper addresses the issue of "being together," and more specifically the issue of "being together in time." We provide with an integrative framework that is inspired by phenomenology, the enactive approach and dynamical systems theories. To do so, we first define embodiment as a living and lived phenomenon that emerges from agent-world coupling. We then show that embodiment is essentially dynamical and therefore we describe experiential, behavioral and brain dynamics. Both lived temporality and the temporality of the living appear to be complex, multiscale phenomena. Next we discuss embodied dynamics in the context of interpersonal interactions, and briefly review the empirical literature on between-persons temporal coordination. Overall, we propose that being together in time emerges from the relational dynamics of embodied interactions and their flexible co-regulation.

No MeSH data available.