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The complete design in the composite face paradigm: role of response bias, target certainty, and feedback.

Meinhardt G, Meinhardt-Injac B, Persike M - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: Some years ago an improved design (the "complete design") was proposed to assess the composite face effect in terms of a congruency effect, defined as the performance difference for congruent and incongruent target to no-target relationships (Cheung et al., 2008).In a recent paper Rossion (2013) questioned whether the congruency effect was a valid hallmark of perceptual integration, because it may contain confounds with face-unspecific interference effects.We conclude that the congruency effect, when complemented by an evaluation of response bias, is a valid hallmark of feature integration that allows one to separate faces from non-face objects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Some years ago an improved design (the "complete design") was proposed to assess the composite face effect in terms of a congruency effect, defined as the performance difference for congruent and incongruent target to no-target relationships (Cheung et al., 2008). In a recent paper Rossion (2013) questioned whether the congruency effect was a valid hallmark of perceptual integration, because it may contain confounds with face-unspecific interference effects. Here we argue that the complete design is well-balanced and allows one to separate face-specific from face-unspecific effects. We used the complete design for a same/different composite stimulus matching task with face and non-face objects (watches). Subjects performed the task with and without trial-by-trial feedback, and with low and high certainty about the target half. Results showed large congruency effects for faces, particularly when subjects were informed late in the trial about which face halves had to be matched. Analysis of response bias revealed that subjects preferred the "different" response in incongruent trials, which is expected when upper and lower face halves are integrated perceptually at the encoding stage. The results pattern was observed in the absence of feedback, while providing feedback generally attenuated the congruency effect, and led to an avoidance of response bias. For watches no or marginal congruency effects and a moderate global "same" bias were observed. We conclude that the congruency effect, when complemented by an evaluation of response bias, is a valid hallmark of feature integration that allows one to separate faces from non-face objects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Likelihood functions f(x/D), f(x/S) as normal probability density functions with equal variance σ2, decision criterion k, and corresponding probabilities of “false alarm” (P(“same”/D)) and “miss” (P(“different”/S)) events resulting from the position of the decision criterion k on the latent sensory continuum x. The lower continuum represents a transformed standard axis with d′/2 as the new origin. Expressed on this axis, positive values of the transformed decision criterion, c, correspond to more frequent “different” than “same” judgments, a bias toward the “different” response category (see arrow).
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FA1: Likelihood functions f(x/D), f(x/S) as normal probability density functions with equal variance σ2, decision criterion k, and corresponding probabilities of “false alarm” (P(“same”/D)) and “miss” (P(“different”/S)) events resulting from the position of the decision criterion k on the latent sensory continuum x. The lower continuum represents a transformed standard axis with d′/2 as the new origin. Expressed on this axis, positive values of the transformed decision criterion, c, correspond to more frequent “different” than “same” judgments, a bias toward the “different” response category (see arrow).

Mentions: response bias can be evaluated because positive values of c mean that the observer prefers “different” responses, while negative values of c indicate that she/he prefers the “same” response category (see Figure A1).


The complete design in the composite face paradigm: role of response bias, target certainty, and feedback.

Meinhardt G, Meinhardt-Injac B, Persike M - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Likelihood functions f(x/D), f(x/S) as normal probability density functions with equal variance σ2, decision criterion k, and corresponding probabilities of “false alarm” (P(“same”/D)) and “miss” (P(“different”/S)) events resulting from the position of the decision criterion k on the latent sensory continuum x. The lower continuum represents a transformed standard axis with d′/2 as the new origin. Expressed on this axis, positive values of the transformed decision criterion, c, correspond to more frequent “different” than “same” judgments, a bias toward the “different” response category (see arrow).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215786&req=5

FA1: Likelihood functions f(x/D), f(x/S) as normal probability density functions with equal variance σ2, decision criterion k, and corresponding probabilities of “false alarm” (P(“same”/D)) and “miss” (P(“different”/S)) events resulting from the position of the decision criterion k on the latent sensory continuum x. The lower continuum represents a transformed standard axis with d′/2 as the new origin. Expressed on this axis, positive values of the transformed decision criterion, c, correspond to more frequent “different” than “same” judgments, a bias toward the “different” response category (see arrow).
Mentions: response bias can be evaluated because positive values of c mean that the observer prefers “different” responses, while negative values of c indicate that she/he prefers the “same” response category (see Figure A1).

Bottom Line: Some years ago an improved design (the "complete design") was proposed to assess the composite face effect in terms of a congruency effect, defined as the performance difference for congruent and incongruent target to no-target relationships (Cheung et al., 2008).In a recent paper Rossion (2013) questioned whether the congruency effect was a valid hallmark of perceptual integration, because it may contain confounds with face-unspecific interference effects.We conclude that the congruency effect, when complemented by an evaluation of response bias, is a valid hallmark of feature integration that allows one to separate faces from non-face objects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Some years ago an improved design (the "complete design") was proposed to assess the composite face effect in terms of a congruency effect, defined as the performance difference for congruent and incongruent target to no-target relationships (Cheung et al., 2008). In a recent paper Rossion (2013) questioned whether the congruency effect was a valid hallmark of perceptual integration, because it may contain confounds with face-unspecific interference effects. Here we argue that the complete design is well-balanced and allows one to separate face-specific from face-unspecific effects. We used the complete design for a same/different composite stimulus matching task with face and non-face objects (watches). Subjects performed the task with and without trial-by-trial feedback, and with low and high certainty about the target half. Results showed large congruency effects for faces, particularly when subjects were informed late in the trial about which face halves had to be matched. Analysis of response bias revealed that subjects preferred the "different" response in incongruent trials, which is expected when upper and lower face halves are integrated perceptually at the encoding stage. The results pattern was observed in the absence of feedback, while providing feedback generally attenuated the congruency effect, and led to an avoidance of response bias. For watches no or marginal congruency effects and a moderate global "same" bias were observed. We conclude that the congruency effect, when complemented by an evaluation of response bias, is a valid hallmark of feature integration that allows one to separate faces from non-face objects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus