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Inhalation of rod-like carbon nanotubes causes unconventional allergic airway inflammation.

Rydman EM, Ilves M, Koivisto AJ, Kinaret PA, Fortino V, Savinko TS, Lehto MT, Pulkkinen V, Vippola M, Hämeri KJ, Matikainen S, Wolff H, Savolainen KM, Greco D, Alenius H - Part Fibre Toxicol (2014)

Bottom Line: However, little is known about the possible effects of CNT on pulmonary allergic diseases, such as asthma.Mast cells were found to partially regulate the inflammation caused by rod-like CNT, but also alveaolar macrophages play an important role in the early stages.These observations emphasize the diverse abilities of CNT to impact the immune system, and they should be taken into account for hazard assessment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanosafety Research Centre, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. elina.rydman@ttl.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) represent a great promise for technological and industrial development but serious concerns on their health effects have also emerged. Rod-shaped CNT are, in fact, able to induce asbestos-like pathogenicity in mice including granuloma formation in abdominal cavity and sub-pleural fibrosis. Exposure to CNT, especially in the occupational context, happens mainly by inhalation. However, little is known about the possible effects of CNT on pulmonary allergic diseases, such as asthma.

Methods: We exposed mice by inhalation to two types of multi-walled CNT, rigid rod-like and flexible tangled CNT, for four hours a day once or on four consecutive days. Early events were monitored immediately and 24 hours after the single inhalation exposure and the four day exposure mimicked an occupational work week. Mast cell deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of mast cells in the occurring inflammation.

Results: Here we show that even a short-term inhalation of the rod-like CNT induces novel innate immunity-mediated allergic-like airway inflammation in healthy mice. Marked eosinophilia was accompanied by mucus hypersecretion, AHR and the expression of Th2-type cytokines. Exploration of the early events by transcriptomics analysis reveals that a single 4-h exposure to rod-shaped CNT, but not to tangled CNT, causes a radical up-regulation of genes involved in innate immunity and cytokine/chemokine pathways. Mast cells were found to partially regulate the inflammation caused by rod-like CNT, but also alveaolar macrophages play an important role in the early stages.

Conclusions: These observations emphasize the diverse abilities of CNT to impact the immune system, and they should be taken into account for hazard assessment.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Table of characteristics of the used multi-walled carbon nanotubes.aSize, purity and specific surface area are reported in the table, as provided by the vendor. bMorphology of the materials is pictured by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). cElemental composition shown is the average of three separate analyses. CNT, carbon nanotubes; EDS, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; OD, outside diameter; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SSA, specific surface area; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; wt%, weight percent.
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Fig6: Table of characteristics of the used multi-walled carbon nanotubes.aSize, purity and specific surface area are reported in the table, as provided by the vendor. bMorphology of the materials is pictured by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). cElemental composition shown is the average of three separate analyses. CNT, carbon nanotubes; EDS, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; OD, outside diameter; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SSA, specific surface area; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; wt%, weight percent.

Mentions: The types of MWCNT used in the study included a sample of rod-like MWCNT (rCNT; Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) that had straight, inflexible and rigid fibers, and a sample of tangled MWCNT (tCNT; Cheap Tubes, Inc., Brattleboro, VT, USA) which consisted of curved fibers. The morphology of the CNT was characterized by electron microscopy (Zeiss ULTRAPlus FEG-SEM, Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, Oberkochen, Germany; Jeol JEM 2010 TEM, Jeol Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and their composition was analyzed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS ThermoNoran Vantage, Thermo Scientific, Breda, The Netherlands) attached to Jeol JEM 2010 TEM. Elemental composition data were expressed as the average of three separate analyses. Physico-chemical characteristics of the materials are shown in Figure 6.Figure 6


Inhalation of rod-like carbon nanotubes causes unconventional allergic airway inflammation.

Rydman EM, Ilves M, Koivisto AJ, Kinaret PA, Fortino V, Savinko TS, Lehto MT, Pulkkinen V, Vippola M, Hämeri KJ, Matikainen S, Wolff H, Savolainen KM, Greco D, Alenius H - Part Fibre Toxicol (2014)

Table of characteristics of the used multi-walled carbon nanotubes.aSize, purity and specific surface area are reported in the table, as provided by the vendor. bMorphology of the materials is pictured by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). cElemental composition shown is the average of three separate analyses. CNT, carbon nanotubes; EDS, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; OD, outside diameter; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SSA, specific surface area; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; wt%, weight percent.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215016&req=5

Fig6: Table of characteristics of the used multi-walled carbon nanotubes.aSize, purity and specific surface area are reported in the table, as provided by the vendor. bMorphology of the materials is pictured by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). cElemental composition shown is the average of three separate analyses. CNT, carbon nanotubes; EDS, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; OD, outside diameter; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SSA, specific surface area; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; wt%, weight percent.
Mentions: The types of MWCNT used in the study included a sample of rod-like MWCNT (rCNT; Mitsui & Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) that had straight, inflexible and rigid fibers, and a sample of tangled MWCNT (tCNT; Cheap Tubes, Inc., Brattleboro, VT, USA) which consisted of curved fibers. The morphology of the CNT was characterized by electron microscopy (Zeiss ULTRAPlus FEG-SEM, Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, Oberkochen, Germany; Jeol JEM 2010 TEM, Jeol Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and their composition was analyzed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS ThermoNoran Vantage, Thermo Scientific, Breda, The Netherlands) attached to Jeol JEM 2010 TEM. Elemental composition data were expressed as the average of three separate analyses. Physico-chemical characteristics of the materials are shown in Figure 6.Figure 6

Bottom Line: However, little is known about the possible effects of CNT on pulmonary allergic diseases, such as asthma.Mast cells were found to partially regulate the inflammation caused by rod-like CNT, but also alveaolar macrophages play an important role in the early stages.These observations emphasize the diverse abilities of CNT to impact the immune system, and they should be taken into account for hazard assessment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanosafety Research Centre, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. elina.rydman@ttl.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) represent a great promise for technological and industrial development but serious concerns on their health effects have also emerged. Rod-shaped CNT are, in fact, able to induce asbestos-like pathogenicity in mice including granuloma formation in abdominal cavity and sub-pleural fibrosis. Exposure to CNT, especially in the occupational context, happens mainly by inhalation. However, little is known about the possible effects of CNT on pulmonary allergic diseases, such as asthma.

Methods: We exposed mice by inhalation to two types of multi-walled CNT, rigid rod-like and flexible tangled CNT, for four hours a day once or on four consecutive days. Early events were monitored immediately and 24 hours after the single inhalation exposure and the four day exposure mimicked an occupational work week. Mast cell deficient mice were used to evaluate the role of mast cells in the occurring inflammation.

Results: Here we show that even a short-term inhalation of the rod-like CNT induces novel innate immunity-mediated allergic-like airway inflammation in healthy mice. Marked eosinophilia was accompanied by mucus hypersecretion, AHR and the expression of Th2-type cytokines. Exploration of the early events by transcriptomics analysis reveals that a single 4-h exposure to rod-shaped CNT, but not to tangled CNT, causes a radical up-regulation of genes involved in innate immunity and cytokine/chemokine pathways. Mast cells were found to partially regulate the inflammation caused by rod-like CNT, but also alveaolar macrophages play an important role in the early stages.

Conclusions: These observations emphasize the diverse abilities of CNT to impact the immune system, and they should be taken into account for hazard assessment.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus