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Association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits and dental arch dimensions in deciduous dentition: a cross-sectional study.

Agarwal SS, Nehra K, Sharma M, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H - Prog Orthod (2014)

Bottom Line: The average ICD and IMD in maxilla and average IMD in mandible were significantly higher among group 2 as compared to group 1 (P < 0.01).In mandible, average ICD did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.342).The distribution of anterior open bite did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.865).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to determine association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits, dental arch transverse diameters, posterior crossbite and anterior open bite in deciduous dentition.

Methods: 415 children (228 males and 187 females), 4 to 6 years old, from a mixed Indian population were clinically examined. Based on written questionnaire answered by parents, children were divided into two groups: group 1 (breastfed for <6 months (n = 158)) and group 2 (breastfed for ≥6 months (n = 257)). The associations were analysed using chi-square test (P < 0.05 taken as statistically significant). Odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the strength of associations tested. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done for obtaining independent predictors of posterior crossbite and maxillary and mandibular IMD (Inter-molar distance) and ICD (Inter-canine distance).

Results: Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) was present in 15.18% children (20.3% in group 1 as compared to 12.1% in group 2 (P = 0.024)). The average ICD and IMD in maxilla and average IMD in mandible were significantly higher among group 2 as compared to group 1 (P < 0.01). In mandible, average ICD did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.342). The distribution of anterior open bite did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.865). The distribution of posterior crossbite was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.001). OR assessment (OR = 1.852) revealed that group 1 had almost twofold higher prevalence of NNS habits than group 2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the first group had independently fourfold increased risk of developing crossbite compared to the second group (OR = 4.3). Multivariate linear regression analysis also revealed that age and breastfeeding duration were the most significant determinants of ICD and IMD.

Conclusions: An increased prevalence of NNS in the first group suggests that NNS is a dominant variable in the association between breastfeeding duration and reduced intra-arch transverse diameters which leads to increased prevalence of posterior crossbites as seen in our study. Mandibular inter-canine width is however unaffected due to a lowered tongue posture seen in these children.

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The distribution of non-nutritive sucking habits according to the duration of breastfeeding.
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Fig1: The distribution of non-nutritive sucking habits according to the duration of breastfeeding.

Mentions: NNS habits were present in 15.18% children. In children breastfed <6 months, 20.3% were indulged in NNS habits while the frequency was 12.1% in children breastfed ≥6 months. The distribution of digit sucking differed significantly between the two groups. The children who were breastfed <6 months had a higher prevalence of digit sucking habit compared to the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.046). The distribution of thumb sucking and dummy sucking did not differ significantly between the two breastfeeding groups (P > 0.05). The distribution of non-nutritive sucking (i.e. the composite status of digit sucking, dummy or pacifier sucking) was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.024). The children who were breastfed <6 months had a higher prevalence of NNS compared to the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) (Tables 1 and 2, Figure 1).Table 2


Association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits and dental arch dimensions in deciduous dentition: a cross-sectional study.

Agarwal SS, Nehra K, Sharma M, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H - Prog Orthod (2014)

The distribution of non-nutritive sucking habits according to the duration of breastfeeding.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4215013&req=5

Fig1: The distribution of non-nutritive sucking habits according to the duration of breastfeeding.
Mentions: NNS habits were present in 15.18% children. In children breastfed <6 months, 20.3% were indulged in NNS habits while the frequency was 12.1% in children breastfed ≥6 months. The distribution of digit sucking differed significantly between the two groups. The children who were breastfed <6 months had a higher prevalence of digit sucking habit compared to the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.046). The distribution of thumb sucking and dummy sucking did not differ significantly between the two breastfeeding groups (P > 0.05). The distribution of non-nutritive sucking (i.e. the composite status of digit sucking, dummy or pacifier sucking) was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.024). The children who were breastfed <6 months had a higher prevalence of NNS compared to the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) (Tables 1 and 2, Figure 1).Table 2

Bottom Line: The average ICD and IMD in maxilla and average IMD in mandible were significantly higher among group 2 as compared to group 1 (P < 0.01).In mandible, average ICD did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.342).The distribution of anterior open bite did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.865).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to determine association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits, dental arch transverse diameters, posterior crossbite and anterior open bite in deciduous dentition.

Methods: 415 children (228 males and 187 females), 4 to 6 years old, from a mixed Indian population were clinically examined. Based on written questionnaire answered by parents, children were divided into two groups: group 1 (breastfed for <6 months (n = 158)) and group 2 (breastfed for ≥6 months (n = 257)). The associations were analysed using chi-square test (P < 0.05 taken as statistically significant). Odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the strength of associations tested. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done for obtaining independent predictors of posterior crossbite and maxillary and mandibular IMD (Inter-molar distance) and ICD (Inter-canine distance).

Results: Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) was present in 15.18% children (20.3% in group 1 as compared to 12.1% in group 2 (P = 0.024)). The average ICD and IMD in maxilla and average IMD in mandible were significantly higher among group 2 as compared to group 1 (P < 0.01). In mandible, average ICD did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.342). The distribution of anterior open bite did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.865). The distribution of posterior crossbite was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.001). OR assessment (OR = 1.852) revealed that group 1 had almost twofold higher prevalence of NNS habits than group 2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the first group had independently fourfold increased risk of developing crossbite compared to the second group (OR = 4.3). Multivariate linear regression analysis also revealed that age and breastfeeding duration were the most significant determinants of ICD and IMD.

Conclusions: An increased prevalence of NNS in the first group suggests that NNS is a dominant variable in the association between breastfeeding duration and reduced intra-arch transverse diameters which leads to increased prevalence of posterior crossbites as seen in our study. Mandibular inter-canine width is however unaffected due to a lowered tongue posture seen in these children.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus