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Neural substrates of Hanja (Logogram) and Hangul (Phonogram) character readings by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Cho ZH, Kim N, Bae S, Chi JG, Park CW, Ogawa S, Kim YB - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base.These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses.The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The two basic scripts of the Korean writing system, Hanja (the logography of the traditional Korean character) and Hangul (the more newer Korean alphabet), have been used together since the 14th century. While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base. These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses. Based on these linguistic differences between Hanja and Hangul, we have launched two studies; first was to find differences in cortical activation when it is stimulated by Hanja and Hangul reading to support the much discussed dual-route hypothesis of logographic and phonological routes in the brain by fMRI (Experiment 1). The second objective was to evaluate how Hanja and Hangul affect comprehension, therefore, recognition memory, specifically the effects of semantic transparency and morphemic clarity on memory consolidation and then related cortical activations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Experiment 2). The first fMRI experiment indicated relatively large areas of the brain are activated by Hanja reading compared to Hangul reading. The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul. That is the morphemic clarity has significantly more effect than semantic transparency on recognition memory when studies by fMRI in correlation with behavioral study.

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Experiment 1: Two sets of experimentally obtained images demonstrating the two potential pathways; the grapheme and phoneme dorsal pathways. Illustrations (A) and (B) depict Hangul>Baseline and Hanja>Baseline results. Illustration (C) is Hangul>Hanja where the angular gyrus (AG) is activated with Hangul (Hangul>Hanja), suggesting the involvement of this area for grapheme to phoneme conversion, while in (D) shows the case of Hanja>Hangul and depicts hypothetical pathway which involves both Broca's area (BA) and premotor area (PM) for Hanja reading.
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Figure 4: Experiment 1: Two sets of experimentally obtained images demonstrating the two potential pathways; the grapheme and phoneme dorsal pathways. Illustrations (A) and (B) depict Hangul>Baseline and Hanja>Baseline results. Illustration (C) is Hangul>Hanja where the angular gyrus (AG) is activated with Hangul (Hangul>Hanja), suggesting the involvement of this area for grapheme to phoneme conversion, while in (D) shows the case of Hanja>Hangul and depicts hypothetical pathway which involves both Broca's area (BA) and premotor area (PM) for Hanja reading.

Mentions: The comparison of Hanja and Hangul with baseline subtraction (Hanja/Hangul vs. baseline) showed Hanja reading induced much larger activation in Broca's area as well as the premotor-motor area and left superior parietal cortex (BA7) while Hangul elicited greater activation in the angular gyrus (AG) and left inferior prefrontal area (LIPFC) (Fig. 4A, B). In addition, Hanja induced greater activation in LSPC and Broca's area in dorsal pathway as well as ESC in ventral pathway. It is interesting to note that Hangul, phonological channel, also activated dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) (Fig. 4C, D, Table 2). These data largely support the hypothesis shown in Fig. 1.


Neural substrates of Hanja (Logogram) and Hangul (Phonogram) character readings by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Cho ZH, Kim N, Bae S, Chi JG, Park CW, Ogawa S, Kim YB - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

Experiment 1: Two sets of experimentally obtained images demonstrating the two potential pathways; the grapheme and phoneme dorsal pathways. Illustrations (A) and (B) depict Hangul>Baseline and Hanja>Baseline results. Illustration (C) is Hangul>Hanja where the angular gyrus (AG) is activated with Hangul (Hangul>Hanja), suggesting the involvement of this area for grapheme to phoneme conversion, while in (D) shows the case of Hanja>Hangul and depicts hypothetical pathway which involves both Broca's area (BA) and premotor area (PM) for Hanja reading.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214944&req=5

Figure 4: Experiment 1: Two sets of experimentally obtained images demonstrating the two potential pathways; the grapheme and phoneme dorsal pathways. Illustrations (A) and (B) depict Hangul>Baseline and Hanja>Baseline results. Illustration (C) is Hangul>Hanja where the angular gyrus (AG) is activated with Hangul (Hangul>Hanja), suggesting the involvement of this area for grapheme to phoneme conversion, while in (D) shows the case of Hanja>Hangul and depicts hypothetical pathway which involves both Broca's area (BA) and premotor area (PM) for Hanja reading.
Mentions: The comparison of Hanja and Hangul with baseline subtraction (Hanja/Hangul vs. baseline) showed Hanja reading induced much larger activation in Broca's area as well as the premotor-motor area and left superior parietal cortex (BA7) while Hangul elicited greater activation in the angular gyrus (AG) and left inferior prefrontal area (LIPFC) (Fig. 4A, B). In addition, Hanja induced greater activation in LSPC and Broca's area in dorsal pathway as well as ESC in ventral pathway. It is interesting to note that Hangul, phonological channel, also activated dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) (Fig. 4C, D, Table 2). These data largely support the hypothesis shown in Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base.These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses.The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The two basic scripts of the Korean writing system, Hanja (the logography of the traditional Korean character) and Hangul (the more newer Korean alphabet), have been used together since the 14th century. While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base. These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses. Based on these linguistic differences between Hanja and Hangul, we have launched two studies; first was to find differences in cortical activation when it is stimulated by Hanja and Hangul reading to support the much discussed dual-route hypothesis of logographic and phonological routes in the brain by fMRI (Experiment 1). The second objective was to evaluate how Hanja and Hangul affect comprehension, therefore, recognition memory, specifically the effects of semantic transparency and morphemic clarity on memory consolidation and then related cortical activations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Experiment 2). The first fMRI experiment indicated relatively large areas of the brain are activated by Hanja reading compared to Hangul reading. The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul. That is the morphemic clarity has significantly more effect than semantic transparency on recognition memory when studies by fMRI in correlation with behavioral study.

Show MeSH