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Neural substrates of Hanja (Logogram) and Hangul (Phonogram) character readings by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Cho ZH, Kim N, Bae S, Chi JG, Park CW, Ogawa S, Kim YB - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base.These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses.The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The two basic scripts of the Korean writing system, Hanja (the logography of the traditional Korean character) and Hangul (the more newer Korean alphabet), have been used together since the 14th century. While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base. These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses. Based on these linguistic differences between Hanja and Hangul, we have launched two studies; first was to find differences in cortical activation when it is stimulated by Hanja and Hangul reading to support the much discussed dual-route hypothesis of logographic and phonological routes in the brain by fMRI (Experiment 1). The second objective was to evaluate how Hanja and Hangul affect comprehension, therefore, recognition memory, specifically the effects of semantic transparency and morphemic clarity on memory consolidation and then related cortical activations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Experiment 2). The first fMRI experiment indicated relatively large areas of the brain are activated by Hanja reading compared to Hangul reading. The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul. That is the morphemic clarity has significantly more effect than semantic transparency on recognition memory when studies by fMRI in correlation with behavioral study.

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A set of Hanja and Hangul scripts used in the word recognition experiment. The left panel illustrates a Hanja set and at the right a Hangul set. Within each activation block, a word was displayed for 1 sec, resulting a total of 30 sec for 30 words given per block.
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Figure 2: A set of Hanja and Hangul scripts used in the word recognition experiment. The left panel illustrates a Hanja set and at the right a Hangul set. Within each activation block, a word was displayed for 1 sec, resulting a total of 30 sec for 30 words given per block.

Mentions: A total of 150 of two-letter Hanja stimuli based on KAPHE guidelines equivalent to level 5 middle school education in Korea was used. A total of 150 of the two-letter words most frequently used Hangul script items was also chosen to match the Hanja items. The experiment was conducted using fMRI consisting of a beam projector with an 8-inch screen presented via Stream DX. Among the 150 items, 30 words were used for each block for both, Hanja and Hangul. One session consisted of 5 blocks. Each session began with the display of 30 sec of baseline stimulation which consisted of a fixed cross at the center, followed by a 30 sec period of activation of each block consisting of either Hanja or Hangul. Participants were instructed to read Hanja or Hangul to themselves without actual vocalization (internal reading). Within each activation block, 30 words were displayed with each word being presented for 1 sec. The order of sessions was randomized to eliminate systemic bias (Fig. 2).


Neural substrates of Hanja (Logogram) and Hangul (Phonogram) character readings by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Cho ZH, Kim N, Bae S, Chi JG, Park CW, Ogawa S, Kim YB - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

A set of Hanja and Hangul scripts used in the word recognition experiment. The left panel illustrates a Hanja set and at the right a Hangul set. Within each activation block, a word was displayed for 1 sec, resulting a total of 30 sec for 30 words given per block.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214944&req=5

Figure 2: A set of Hanja and Hangul scripts used in the word recognition experiment. The left panel illustrates a Hanja set and at the right a Hangul set. Within each activation block, a word was displayed for 1 sec, resulting a total of 30 sec for 30 words given per block.
Mentions: A total of 150 of two-letter Hanja stimuli based on KAPHE guidelines equivalent to level 5 middle school education in Korea was used. A total of 150 of the two-letter words most frequently used Hangul script items was also chosen to match the Hanja items. The experiment was conducted using fMRI consisting of a beam projector with an 8-inch screen presented via Stream DX. Among the 150 items, 30 words were used for each block for both, Hanja and Hangul. One session consisted of 5 blocks. Each session began with the display of 30 sec of baseline stimulation which consisted of a fixed cross at the center, followed by a 30 sec period of activation of each block consisting of either Hanja or Hangul. Participants were instructed to read Hanja or Hangul to themselves without actual vocalization (internal reading). Within each activation block, 30 words were displayed with each word being presented for 1 sec. The order of sessions was randomized to eliminate systemic bias (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base.These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses.The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The two basic scripts of the Korean writing system, Hanja (the logography of the traditional Korean character) and Hangul (the more newer Korean alphabet), have been used together since the 14th century. While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base. These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses. Based on these linguistic differences between Hanja and Hangul, we have launched two studies; first was to find differences in cortical activation when it is stimulated by Hanja and Hangul reading to support the much discussed dual-route hypothesis of logographic and phonological routes in the brain by fMRI (Experiment 1). The second objective was to evaluate how Hanja and Hangul affect comprehension, therefore, recognition memory, specifically the effects of semantic transparency and morphemic clarity on memory consolidation and then related cortical activations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Experiment 2). The first fMRI experiment indicated relatively large areas of the brain are activated by Hanja reading compared to Hangul reading. The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul. That is the morphemic clarity has significantly more effect than semantic transparency on recognition memory when studies by fMRI in correlation with behavioral study.

Show MeSH