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Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental soil and vegetables.

Hong S, Kim K, Yoon S, Park WY, Sim S, Yu JR - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts.Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing.Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology & Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidial enteritis. Numerous outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported worldwide. Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts. The present study investigated farm soil collected from 34 locations along the western Korean peninsula and 24 vegetables purchased from local grocery markets in Seoul. The soil and vegetable samples were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to estimate the risk of infection. Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing. It is suggested that Cryptosporidium infection can be mediated via farm soil and vegetables. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

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Alignment of the qPCR product sequences belonging to the positive soil (A) and food (B) samples generated by using the Clone Manager 7. qPCR was performed to detect C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623).
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Figure 4: Alignment of the qPCR product sequences belonging to the positive soil (A) and food (B) samples generated by using the Clone Manager 7. qPCR was performed to detect C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623).

Mentions: Of the 34 farm soil samples examined, Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in 11 soil samples (Table 2; 32.4% positive). The number of oocysts detected from the soil samples ranged 809-3,710/g of soil. In Hongseong-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, 6 of the 7 soil samples were positive for Cryptosporidium sp., which was the highest positive rate (85.7%) among the areas examined (except for Gyeonggi-do, where only one sample was examined). In the two locations in Jeollabuk-do, Cryptosporidium was not detected. Agarose gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a 242-bp product in all Cryptosporidium-positive samples (Fig. 2A). The result of TaqI restriction enzyme digestion showed that all of the positive samples fragmented into 117- and 125-bp bands (Fig. 2B). The C. parvum DNA used as a positive control showed fragmented bands with same pattern as that of the Cryptosporidium-positive soil samples. C. hominis DNA, obtained from human diarrheal stool (12), was not fragmented by the TaqI enzyme (Fig. 2B). DNA sequence alignment data of the PCR products showed 98%-100% homology with those of C. parvum (Fig. 4A). Thus, Cryptosporidium sp. detected from the 11 soil samples were confirmed to be C. parvum.


Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental soil and vegetables.

Hong S, Kim K, Yoon S, Park WY, Sim S, Yu JR - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

Alignment of the qPCR product sequences belonging to the positive soil (A) and food (B) samples generated by using the Clone Manager 7. qPCR was performed to detect C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214936&req=5

Figure 4: Alignment of the qPCR product sequences belonging to the positive soil (A) and food (B) samples generated by using the Clone Manager 7. qPCR was performed to detect C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623).
Mentions: Of the 34 farm soil samples examined, Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in 11 soil samples (Table 2; 32.4% positive). The number of oocysts detected from the soil samples ranged 809-3,710/g of soil. In Hongseong-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, 6 of the 7 soil samples were positive for Cryptosporidium sp., which was the highest positive rate (85.7%) among the areas examined (except for Gyeonggi-do, where only one sample was examined). In the two locations in Jeollabuk-do, Cryptosporidium was not detected. Agarose gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a 242-bp product in all Cryptosporidium-positive samples (Fig. 2A). The result of TaqI restriction enzyme digestion showed that all of the positive samples fragmented into 117- and 125-bp bands (Fig. 2B). The C. parvum DNA used as a positive control showed fragmented bands with same pattern as that of the Cryptosporidium-positive soil samples. C. hominis DNA, obtained from human diarrheal stool (12), was not fragmented by the TaqI enzyme (Fig. 2B). DNA sequence alignment data of the PCR products showed 98%-100% homology with those of C. parvum (Fig. 4A). Thus, Cryptosporidium sp. detected from the 11 soil samples were confirmed to be C. parvum.

Bottom Line: Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts.Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing.Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology & Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidial enteritis. Numerous outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported worldwide. Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts. The present study investigated farm soil collected from 34 locations along the western Korean peninsula and 24 vegetables purchased from local grocery markets in Seoul. The soil and vegetable samples were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to estimate the risk of infection. Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing. It is suggested that Cryptosporidium infection can be mediated via farm soil and vegetables. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus