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Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental soil and vegetables.

Hong S, Kim K, Yoon S, Park WY, Sim S, Yu JR - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts.Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing.Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology & Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidial enteritis. Numerous outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported worldwide. Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts. The present study investigated farm soil collected from 34 locations along the western Korean peninsula and 24 vegetables purchased from local grocery markets in Seoul. The soil and vegetable samples were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to estimate the risk of infection. Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing. It is suggested that Cryptosporidium infection can be mediated via farm soil and vegetables. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

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Agarose gel electrophoresis of the qPCR products from food samples. qPCR was performed to detect the C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623). (A) qPCR products of food samples (242 bp). (B) DNA fragments generated by TaqI enzyme digestion of the qPCR products. L, 100-bp ladder; 1, carrot; 2, winter-grown cabbage; 3, blueberry; Cp, C. parvum DNA.
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Figure 3: Agarose gel electrophoresis of the qPCR products from food samples. qPCR was performed to detect the C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623). (A) qPCR products of food samples (242 bp). (B) DNA fragments generated by TaqI enzyme digestion of the qPCR products. L, 100-bp ladder; 1, carrot; 2, winter-grown cabbage; 3, blueberry; Cp, C. parvum DNA.

Mentions: Of the 24 food samples examined, Cryptosporidium sp. was detected from 3 food samples of carrot, winter-grown cabbage, and blueberries (12.5% positive) (Table 3). Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in only 1 of 3 samples for each kind of food examined (Table 3). The number of oocysts detected from the food samples was 42-110/g of the sample. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a 242-bp product from all Cryptosporidium-positive samples (Fig. 3A), and TaqI restriction enzyme digest revealed that all positive samples had fragmented into 117- and 125-bp bands (Fig. 3B). These results indicate that the food samples were contaminated with C. parvum. DNA sequence alignment data of the PCR products also supported that the Cryptosporidium sp. detected from the food samples was C. parvum (Fig. 4B).


Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental soil and vegetables.

Hong S, Kim K, Yoon S, Park WY, Sim S, Yu JR - J. Korean Med. Sci. (2014)

Agarose gel electrophoresis of the qPCR products from food samples. qPCR was performed to detect the C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623). (A) qPCR products of food samples (242 bp). (B) DNA fragments generated by TaqI enzyme digestion of the qPCR products. L, 100-bp ladder; 1, carrot; 2, winter-grown cabbage; 3, blueberry; Cp, C. parvum DNA.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214936&req=5

Figure 3: Agarose gel electrophoresis of the qPCR products from food samples. qPCR was performed to detect the C. parvumSWI2/SNF2 ATPase, Rad16 ortholog gene (GenBank No. XM_625623). (A) qPCR products of food samples (242 bp). (B) DNA fragments generated by TaqI enzyme digestion of the qPCR products. L, 100-bp ladder; 1, carrot; 2, winter-grown cabbage; 3, blueberry; Cp, C. parvum DNA.
Mentions: Of the 24 food samples examined, Cryptosporidium sp. was detected from 3 food samples of carrot, winter-grown cabbage, and blueberries (12.5% positive) (Table 3). Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in only 1 of 3 samples for each kind of food examined (Table 3). The number of oocysts detected from the food samples was 42-110/g of the sample. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a 242-bp product from all Cryptosporidium-positive samples (Fig. 3A), and TaqI restriction enzyme digest revealed that all positive samples had fragmented into 117- and 125-bp bands (Fig. 3B). These results indicate that the food samples were contaminated with C. parvum. DNA sequence alignment data of the PCR products also supported that the Cryptosporidium sp. detected from the food samples was C. parvum (Fig. 4B).

Bottom Line: Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts.Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing.Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology & Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidial enteritis. Numerous outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported worldwide. Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts. The present study investigated farm soil collected from 34 locations along the western Korean peninsula and 24 vegetables purchased from local grocery markets in Seoul. The soil and vegetable samples were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to estimate the risk of infection. Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing. It is suggested that Cryptosporidium infection can be mediated via farm soil and vegetables. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus