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Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host-commensal symbiosis in sickness.

Pickard JM, Maurice CF, Kinnebrew MA, Abt MC, Schenten D, Golovkina TV, Bogatyrev SR, Ismagilov RF, Pamer EG, Turnbaugh PJ, Chervonsky AV - Nature (2014)

Bottom Line: Fucose affects the expression of microbial metabolic pathways and reduces the expression of bacterial virulence genes.It also improves host tolerance of the mild pathogen Citrobacter rodentium.Thus, rapid IEC fucosylation appears to be a protective mechanism that utilizes the host's resources to maintain host-microbial interactions during pathogen-induced stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Committee on Immunology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

ABSTRACT
Systemic infection induces conserved physiological responses that include both resistance and 'tolerance of infection' mechanisms. Temporary anorexia associated with an infection is often beneficial, reallocating energy from food foraging towards resistance to infection or depriving pathogens of nutrients. However, it imposes a stress on intestinal commensals, as they also experience reduced substrate availability; this affects host fitness owing to the loss of caloric intake and colonization resistance (protection from additional infections). We hypothesized that the host might utilize internal resources to support the gut microbiota during the acute phase of the disease. Here we show that systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands causes rapid α(1,2)-fucosylation of small intestine epithelial cells (IECs) in mice, which requires the sensing of TLR agonists, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-23 by dendritic cells, activation of innate lymphoid cells and expression of fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2) by IL-22-stimulated IECs. Fucosylated proteins are shed into the lumen and fucose is liberated and metabolized by the gut microbiota, as shown by reporter bacteria and community-wide analysis of microbial gene expression. Fucose affects the expression of microbial metabolic pathways and reduces the expression of bacterial virulence genes. It also improves host tolerance of the mild pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Thus, rapid IEC fucosylation appears to be a protective mechanism that utilizes the host's resources to maintain host-microbial interactions during pathogen-induced stress.

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Fucosylated protein in IECs and gut contentsa, Proteins α(1,2)fucosylated in IECs after LPS injection identified by UEA-1 precipitation and mass spectrometry. Abundance is the number of peptide fragments attributed to each gene. b, IECs from Fut2+ untreated, Fut2+ LPS-treated, or Fut2− untreated mice were isolated, and lysates separated by SDS-PAGE. α(1,2)fucosylated proteins were detected by blotting with UEA-1 lectin conjugated to HRP. c, Identical gel stained with Coomassie blue for total protein content. d, Relative density of the boxed area of each lane from b divided by the relative density in c. e, UEA-1 staining of luminal proteins as in Fig. 3c. Blot is overexposed to show absence of luminal fucosylated proteins in the LPS-treated, Fut2− mouse.
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Figure 9: Fucosylated protein in IECs and gut contentsa, Proteins α(1,2)fucosylated in IECs after LPS injection identified by UEA-1 precipitation and mass spectrometry. Abundance is the number of peptide fragments attributed to each gene. b, IECs from Fut2+ untreated, Fut2+ LPS-treated, or Fut2− untreated mice were isolated, and lysates separated by SDS-PAGE. α(1,2)fucosylated proteins were detected by blotting with UEA-1 lectin conjugated to HRP. c, Identical gel stained with Coomassie blue for total protein content. d, Relative density of the boxed area of each lane from b divided by the relative density in c. e, UEA-1 staining of luminal proteins as in Fig. 3c. Blot is overexposed to show absence of luminal fucosylated proteins in the LPS-treated, Fut2− mouse.

Mentions: To serve as a substrate to the bacteria residing in the large intestine20, fucosylated proteins (Extended Data Fig. 5a-d) must be released into the SI lumen. After LPS challenge Fut2-dependent fucosylation of luminal proteins was detectable at much higher levels in germ-free mice, SPF mice treated with antibiotics or with a fucosidase inhibitor, than in SPF controls (Fig. 3c, Extended Data Fig. 5e). Thus, fucose is available, released and used by microbes in the large intestine.


Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host-commensal symbiosis in sickness.

Pickard JM, Maurice CF, Kinnebrew MA, Abt MC, Schenten D, Golovkina TV, Bogatyrev SR, Ismagilov RF, Pamer EG, Turnbaugh PJ, Chervonsky AV - Nature (2014)

Fucosylated protein in IECs and gut contentsa, Proteins α(1,2)fucosylated in IECs after LPS injection identified by UEA-1 precipitation and mass spectrometry. Abundance is the number of peptide fragments attributed to each gene. b, IECs from Fut2+ untreated, Fut2+ LPS-treated, or Fut2− untreated mice were isolated, and lysates separated by SDS-PAGE. α(1,2)fucosylated proteins were detected by blotting with UEA-1 lectin conjugated to HRP. c, Identical gel stained with Coomassie blue for total protein content. d, Relative density of the boxed area of each lane from b divided by the relative density in c. e, UEA-1 staining of luminal proteins as in Fig. 3c. Blot is overexposed to show absence of luminal fucosylated proteins in the LPS-treated, Fut2− mouse.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214913&req=5

Figure 9: Fucosylated protein in IECs and gut contentsa, Proteins α(1,2)fucosylated in IECs after LPS injection identified by UEA-1 precipitation and mass spectrometry. Abundance is the number of peptide fragments attributed to each gene. b, IECs from Fut2+ untreated, Fut2+ LPS-treated, or Fut2− untreated mice were isolated, and lysates separated by SDS-PAGE. α(1,2)fucosylated proteins were detected by blotting with UEA-1 lectin conjugated to HRP. c, Identical gel stained with Coomassie blue for total protein content. d, Relative density of the boxed area of each lane from b divided by the relative density in c. e, UEA-1 staining of luminal proteins as in Fig. 3c. Blot is overexposed to show absence of luminal fucosylated proteins in the LPS-treated, Fut2− mouse.
Mentions: To serve as a substrate to the bacteria residing in the large intestine20, fucosylated proteins (Extended Data Fig. 5a-d) must be released into the SI lumen. After LPS challenge Fut2-dependent fucosylation of luminal proteins was detectable at much higher levels in germ-free mice, SPF mice treated with antibiotics or with a fucosidase inhibitor, than in SPF controls (Fig. 3c, Extended Data Fig. 5e). Thus, fucose is available, released and used by microbes in the large intestine.

Bottom Line: Fucose affects the expression of microbial metabolic pathways and reduces the expression of bacterial virulence genes.It also improves host tolerance of the mild pathogen Citrobacter rodentium.Thus, rapid IEC fucosylation appears to be a protective mechanism that utilizes the host's resources to maintain host-microbial interactions during pathogen-induced stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Committee on Immunology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

ABSTRACT
Systemic infection induces conserved physiological responses that include both resistance and 'tolerance of infection' mechanisms. Temporary anorexia associated with an infection is often beneficial, reallocating energy from food foraging towards resistance to infection or depriving pathogens of nutrients. However, it imposes a stress on intestinal commensals, as they also experience reduced substrate availability; this affects host fitness owing to the loss of caloric intake and colonization resistance (protection from additional infections). We hypothesized that the host might utilize internal resources to support the gut microbiota during the acute phase of the disease. Here we show that systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands causes rapid α(1,2)-fucosylation of small intestine epithelial cells (IECs) in mice, which requires the sensing of TLR agonists, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-23 by dendritic cells, activation of innate lymphoid cells and expression of fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2) by IL-22-stimulated IECs. Fucosylated proteins are shed into the lumen and fucose is liberated and metabolized by the gut microbiota, as shown by reporter bacteria and community-wide analysis of microbial gene expression. Fucose affects the expression of microbial metabolic pathways and reduces the expression of bacterial virulence genes. It also improves host tolerance of the mild pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Thus, rapid IEC fucosylation appears to be a protective mechanism that utilizes the host's resources to maintain host-microbial interactions during pathogen-induced stress.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus