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Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

da Silva PG, Hernández MI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales.Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales.The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

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Map of the sampling points showing significant values (red) of the local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD).LCBD analysis used composition, abundance and dry biomass data. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones. The circles are proportional to the total value of LCBD for each analysis.
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pone-0111883-g003: Map of the sampling points showing significant values (red) of the local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD).LCBD analysis used composition, abundance and dry biomass data. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones. The circles are proportional to the total value of LCBD for each analysis.

Mentions: The partitioning of the total variance in components of the contribution of species and sites to beta diversity showed different results when data on composition, abundance and biomass of dung beetles were analyzed. For composition, the total sum of squares (SSTotal) was 38.183 and the index of variance of beta diversity (BDTotal) was 0.395 for dung beetle data across all sampling sites. SCBD values ranged between 0.002 and 0.145, and 10 species contributed above the mean (0.047) to beta diversity (Table 1 left). The values of LCBD ranged between 0.003 and 0.032, indicating the uniqueness of the dung beetle community at each sampling site. Six sampling points were statistically significant to beta diversity (Figure 3A), all within two ITA sites and one PER site. LCBD values were negatively correlated with species richness (r = −0.45, p<0.001) indicating that, in general, sites with unique species composition have a low number of species.


Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

da Silva PG, Hernández MI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Map of the sampling points showing significant values (red) of the local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD).LCBD analysis used composition, abundance and dry biomass data. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones. The circles are proportional to the total value of LCBD for each analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214816&req=5

pone-0111883-g003: Map of the sampling points showing significant values (red) of the local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD).LCBD analysis used composition, abundance and dry biomass data. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones. The circles are proportional to the total value of LCBD for each analysis.
Mentions: The partitioning of the total variance in components of the contribution of species and sites to beta diversity showed different results when data on composition, abundance and biomass of dung beetles were analyzed. For composition, the total sum of squares (SSTotal) was 38.183 and the index of variance of beta diversity (BDTotal) was 0.395 for dung beetle data across all sampling sites. SCBD values ranged between 0.002 and 0.145, and 10 species contributed above the mean (0.047) to beta diversity (Table 1 left). The values of LCBD ranged between 0.003 and 0.032, indicating the uniqueness of the dung beetle community at each sampling site. Six sampling points were statistically significant to beta diversity (Figure 3A), all within two ITA sites and one PER site. LCBD values were negatively correlated with species richness (r = −0.45, p<0.001) indicating that, in general, sites with unique species composition have a low number of species.

Bottom Line: The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales.Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales.The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus