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Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

da Silva PG, Hernández MI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales.Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales.The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

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Full hierarchical analysis of diversity partitioning.The partitioning was performed for species richness and Shannon entropy of dung beetles. α = local diversity, β1 = diversity among sites, β2 = diversity among areas, β3 = diversity among mainland-island.
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pone-0111883-g002: Full hierarchical analysis of diversity partitioning.The partitioning was performed for species richness and Shannon entropy of dung beetles. α = local diversity, β1 = diversity among sites, β2 = diversity among areas, β3 = diversity among mainland-island.

Mentions: The hierarchical partitioning analysis of diversity based on species richness data showed a large contribution of regional (β3 = 5 species) and local (β1 = 4.4 species) spatial scales to gamma diversity (Figure 2). Beta diversity among areas (β2 = 2.2 species) was relatively small when compared to other spatial scales. A similar pattern was observed for Shannon entropy based on species abundance. The hierarchical partitioning of diversity analysis also indicated a small contribution of β2, and a large relative contribution of β3 and β1, respectively.


Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

da Silva PG, Hernández MI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Full hierarchical analysis of diversity partitioning.The partitioning was performed for species richness and Shannon entropy of dung beetles. α = local diversity, β1 = diversity among sites, β2 = diversity among areas, β3 = diversity among mainland-island.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214816&req=5

pone-0111883-g002: Full hierarchical analysis of diversity partitioning.The partitioning was performed for species richness and Shannon entropy of dung beetles. α = local diversity, β1 = diversity among sites, β2 = diversity among areas, β3 = diversity among mainland-island.
Mentions: The hierarchical partitioning analysis of diversity based on species richness data showed a large contribution of regional (β3 = 5 species) and local (β1 = 4.4 species) spatial scales to gamma diversity (Figure 2). Beta diversity among areas (β2 = 2.2 species) was relatively small when compared to other spatial scales. A similar pattern was observed for Shannon entropy based on species abundance. The hierarchical partitioning of diversity analysis also indicated a small contribution of β2, and a large relative contribution of β3 and β1, respectively.

Bottom Line: The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales.Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales.The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus