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Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

da Silva PG, Hernández MI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales.Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales.The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

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Map of the study region.Location of the four areas sampled in eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones.
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pone-0111883-g001: Map of the study region.Location of the four areas sampled in eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones.

Mentions: The study was conducted at four large Atlantic Forest areas in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, two on the island of Santa Catarina (Florianópolis city) and two on the mainland, both on the east coast (Figure 1). The island of Santa Catarina is approximately 54 km north-south and maximally 18 km wide, with a total land area of 424.4 km2. The distance between the mainland and the island varies greatly, with minimum of 500 m and maximum around 10 km.


Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

da Silva PG, Hernández MI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Map of the study region.Location of the four areas sampled in eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214816&req=5

pone-0111883-g001: Map of the study region.Location of the four areas sampled in eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil. ANH: Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim; ITA: Permanent Protection Area of Itapema; PER: Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park; RAT: Permanent Protection Area of Ratones.
Mentions: The study was conducted at four large Atlantic Forest areas in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, two on the island of Santa Catarina (Florianópolis city) and two on the mainland, both on the east coast (Figure 1). The island of Santa Catarina is approximately 54 km north-south and maximally 18 km wide, with a total land area of 424.4 km2. The distance between the mainland and the island varies greatly, with minimum of 500 m and maximum around 10 km.

Bottom Line: The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales.Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales.The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus