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High concentrate diet induced mucosal injuries by enhancing epithelial apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats.

Tao S, Duanmu Y, Dong H, Ni Y, Chen J, Shen X, Zhao R - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05), and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase.In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05), and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07) in HC goats.Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: It is widely accepted that lipopolysaccharide and volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulate in the digestive tract of ruminants fed diets containing high portions of grain. Compared to the ruminal epithelium, the hindgut epithelium is composed of a monolayer structure that is more "leaky" for lipopolysaccharide and susceptible to organic acid-induced damage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in epithelial structure, apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats fed a high-concentrate diet for 6 weeks.

Experimental design: Eight local Chinese goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups: one group was fed a high-concentrate diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the other group was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, LC) for 6 wks. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and hindgut mucosa tissues were collected. Histological techniques, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the tissues structure, cell apoptosis and local inflammation in the hindguts.

Results: Feeding HC diet for 6 wks resulted in a significant decrease of ruminal pH (p<0.01), and ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly increased in HC goats (p<0.05). Obvious damage was observed to mucosal epithelium of the hindgut and the intercellular tight junctions in HC, but not in LC, goats. The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05), and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase. In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05), and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07) in HC goats. The level of NF-κB protein was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats. Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon.

Conclusions: Feeding a high-concentrate diet to goats for 6 wks led to hindgut mucosal injuries via activating epithelial cells apoptosis and local inflammatory response.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

LPS concentrations in ruminal fluid (A) and plasma (B).The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data were analyzed for differences due to diet, time, and their interactions by ANOVA using the General Linear Models of SPSS 11.0 for Windows (StatSoft Inc, Tulsa, OK, USA). Data was considered statistically significant when P<0.05, n = 4. * P<0.05 between two groups.
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pone-0111596-g002: LPS concentrations in ruminal fluid (A) and plasma (B).The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data were analyzed for differences due to diet, time, and their interactions by ANOVA using the General Linear Models of SPSS 11.0 for Windows (StatSoft Inc, Tulsa, OK, USA). Data was considered statistically significant when P<0.05, n = 4. * P<0.05 between two groups.

Mentions: As shown in Figure 2A, both digesting time (p<0.01) and diet (p<0.05) significantly affected LPS content in rumen fluids, and with a significant higher level of LPS in ruminal fluids of HC goats compared to control. There was a significant interaction between time and diet on LPS content in rumen fluids (p<0.01; figure 2A). However, the level of LPS in blood did not show significant difference between HC and LC goats (p>0.05; figure 2B).


High concentrate diet induced mucosal injuries by enhancing epithelial apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats.

Tao S, Duanmu Y, Dong H, Ni Y, Chen J, Shen X, Zhao R - PLoS ONE (2014)

LPS concentrations in ruminal fluid (A) and plasma (B).The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data were analyzed for differences due to diet, time, and their interactions by ANOVA using the General Linear Models of SPSS 11.0 for Windows (StatSoft Inc, Tulsa, OK, USA). Data was considered statistically significant when P<0.05, n = 4. * P<0.05 between two groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214727&req=5

pone-0111596-g002: LPS concentrations in ruminal fluid (A) and plasma (B).The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data were analyzed for differences due to diet, time, and their interactions by ANOVA using the General Linear Models of SPSS 11.0 for Windows (StatSoft Inc, Tulsa, OK, USA). Data was considered statistically significant when P<0.05, n = 4. * P<0.05 between two groups.
Mentions: As shown in Figure 2A, both digesting time (p<0.01) and diet (p<0.05) significantly affected LPS content in rumen fluids, and with a significant higher level of LPS in ruminal fluids of HC goats compared to control. There was a significant interaction between time and diet on LPS content in rumen fluids (p<0.01; figure 2A). However, the level of LPS in blood did not show significant difference between HC and LC goats (p>0.05; figure 2B).

Bottom Line: The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05), and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase.In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05), and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07) in HC goats.Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: It is widely accepted that lipopolysaccharide and volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulate in the digestive tract of ruminants fed diets containing high portions of grain. Compared to the ruminal epithelium, the hindgut epithelium is composed of a monolayer structure that is more "leaky" for lipopolysaccharide and susceptible to organic acid-induced damage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in epithelial structure, apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats fed a high-concentrate diet for 6 weeks.

Experimental design: Eight local Chinese goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups: one group was fed a high-concentrate diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, HC) and the other group was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, LC) for 6 wks. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and hindgut mucosa tissues were collected. Histological techniques, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the tissues structure, cell apoptosis and local inflammation in the hindguts.

Results: Feeding HC diet for 6 wks resulted in a significant decrease of ruminal pH (p<0.01), and ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly increased in HC goats (p<0.05). Obvious damage was observed to mucosal epithelium of the hindgut and the intercellular tight junctions in HC, but not in LC, goats. The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05), and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase. In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05), and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07) in HC goats. The level of NF-κB protein was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats. Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon.

Conclusions: Feeding a high-concentrate diet to goats for 6 wks led to hindgut mucosal injuries via activating epithelial cells apoptosis and local inflammatory response.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus