Limits...
A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

Tai D, Tian J, Zhang J, Song T, Yao Y - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'.Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines.We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China; College of Horticulture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China.

ABSTRACT
Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

Show MeSH
Relative expression profile of downstream genes of McCHS during flower developmental stages.Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of McCHS, McF3H, McF3′H, McDFR, McANS and McUFGT in petals of Malus cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Radiant’, ‘Flame’. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Stages referred to on the x axis are: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars correspond to the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate reactions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214706&req=5

pone-0110570-g005: Relative expression profile of downstream genes of McCHS during flower developmental stages.Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of McCHS, McF3H, McF3′H, McDFR, McANS and McUFGT in petals of Malus cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Radiant’, ‘Flame’. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Stages referred to on the x axis are: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars correspond to the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate reactions.

Mentions: To further confirm how CHS regulated the other anthocyanin biosynthetic genes to affect anthocyanin biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes that are located downstream of McCHS (Figure 5). The expression levels of the downstream genes McF3H, McF3′H, McDFR, McANS and McUFGT were almost all higher in ‘Royalty’ and ‘Radiant’ petals than in ‘Flame’ petals at all developmental stages, with an exception being McUFGT at stage II. To some extent, the expression patterns of McF3H, McF3′H and McDFR showed a similar pattern among the three Malus crabapple cultivars and was closely related to flavonol levels (Figure 2E and 5). While the expression of McF3H, McF3′H and McDFR in ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ petals was similar to McCHS, but not in ‘Royalty’. Most importantly, McCHS showed the same spatial and temporal expression pattern as McANS and McUFGT in all three cultivars. Taken together, the results of transcriptional level suggested McCHS gene regulate the flavonoid biosynthetic genes to color the plants.


A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

Tai D, Tian J, Zhang J, Song T, Yao Y - PLoS ONE (2014)

Relative expression profile of downstream genes of McCHS during flower developmental stages.Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of McCHS, McF3H, McF3′H, McDFR, McANS and McUFGT in petals of Malus cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Radiant’, ‘Flame’. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Stages referred to on the x axis are: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars correspond to the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate reactions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214706&req=5

pone-0110570-g005: Relative expression profile of downstream genes of McCHS during flower developmental stages.Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of McCHS, McF3H, McF3′H, McDFR, McANS and McUFGT in petals of Malus cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Radiant’, ‘Flame’. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Stages referred to on the x axis are: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars correspond to the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate reactions.
Mentions: To further confirm how CHS regulated the other anthocyanin biosynthetic genes to affect anthocyanin biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes that are located downstream of McCHS (Figure 5). The expression levels of the downstream genes McF3H, McF3′H, McDFR, McANS and McUFGT were almost all higher in ‘Royalty’ and ‘Radiant’ petals than in ‘Flame’ petals at all developmental stages, with an exception being McUFGT at stage II. To some extent, the expression patterns of McF3H, McF3′H and McDFR showed a similar pattern among the three Malus crabapple cultivars and was closely related to flavonol levels (Figure 2E and 5). While the expression of McF3H, McF3′H and McDFR in ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ petals was similar to McCHS, but not in ‘Royalty’. Most importantly, McCHS showed the same spatial and temporal expression pattern as McANS and McUFGT in all three cultivars. Taken together, the results of transcriptional level suggested McCHS gene regulate the flavonoid biosynthetic genes to color the plants.

Bottom Line: The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'.Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines.We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China; College of Horticulture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China.

ABSTRACT
Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

Show MeSH