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A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

Tai D, Tian J, Zhang J, Song T, Yao Y - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'.Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines.We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China; College of Horticulture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China.

ABSTRACT
Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

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Flower developmental series of three Malus crabapple cultivars.(A) Typical flower phenotypes of Malus crabapple ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars through development. Five stages of each cultivar are shown. (B) Color changes in ‘Royalty’ petals. (C) Color changes in ‘Radiant’ petals. (D) Color changes in ‘Flame’ petals. (E) Content of flavonoids and anthocyanin in ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ petals. A spectrophotometric colorimeter was used to measure dynamic changes in petals, and HPLC was used to analyze the flavonoids and total anthocyanin contents. Five stages were tested in this study: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements.
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pone-0110570-g002: Flower developmental series of three Malus crabapple cultivars.(A) Typical flower phenotypes of Malus crabapple ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars through development. Five stages of each cultivar are shown. (B) Color changes in ‘Royalty’ petals. (C) Color changes in ‘Radiant’ petals. (D) Color changes in ‘Flame’ petals. (E) Content of flavonoids and anthocyanin in ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ petals. A spectrophotometric colorimeter was used to measure dynamic changes in petals, and HPLC was used to analyze the flavonoids and total anthocyanin contents. Five stages were tested in this study: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements.

Mentions: The petal phenotypes of three Malus crabapple cultivars, ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’, are shown in Figure 2A. ‘Royalty’ petals at stage I were dark red and during flowering the color became more vivid and bright, ultimately reaching maximum color strength at stage IV of full bloom. At the later stage V, after full bloom, the pigmentation faded and dulled (Figure 2B). The petals of ‘Flame’ at stage I showed an obvious light red color, while from stage II to stage V, the color gradually became fainter and eventually the petals turned white (Figure 2D). Interestingly, the petals of ‘Radiant’ were red at stage I, and the color was gradually becoming pink during petal expansion (Figure 2C). Overall, ‘Royalty’ has the most red and vivid flowers, while the ‘Flame’ petals are almost white during petal development, and ‘Radiant’ petals have a significantly color fade process during petal expansion. Next, it is determined how the anthocyanins color the three typical cultivars.


A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

Tai D, Tian J, Zhang J, Song T, Yao Y - PLoS ONE (2014)

Flower developmental series of three Malus crabapple cultivars.(A) Typical flower phenotypes of Malus crabapple ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars through development. Five stages of each cultivar are shown. (B) Color changes in ‘Royalty’ petals. (C) Color changes in ‘Radiant’ petals. (D) Color changes in ‘Flame’ petals. (E) Content of flavonoids and anthocyanin in ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ petals. A spectrophotometric colorimeter was used to measure dynamic changes in petals, and HPLC was used to analyze the flavonoids and total anthocyanin contents. Five stages were tested in this study: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements.
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214706&req=5

pone-0110570-g002: Flower developmental series of three Malus crabapple cultivars.(A) Typical flower phenotypes of Malus crabapple ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars through development. Five stages of each cultivar are shown. (B) Color changes in ‘Royalty’ petals. (C) Color changes in ‘Radiant’ petals. (D) Color changes in ‘Flame’ petals. (E) Content of flavonoids and anthocyanin in ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’ petals. A spectrophotometric colorimeter was used to measure dynamic changes in petals, and HPLC was used to analyze the flavonoids and total anthocyanin contents. Five stages were tested in this study: (I) 6 days before full bloom; (II) 3 days before full bloom; (III) 1 day before full bloom; (IV) full bloom; and (V) 3 days after full bloom. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements.
Mentions: The petal phenotypes of three Malus crabapple cultivars, ‘Royalty’, ‘Radiant’ and ‘Flame’, are shown in Figure 2A. ‘Royalty’ petals at stage I were dark red and during flowering the color became more vivid and bright, ultimately reaching maximum color strength at stage IV of full bloom. At the later stage V, after full bloom, the pigmentation faded and dulled (Figure 2B). The petals of ‘Flame’ at stage I showed an obvious light red color, while from stage II to stage V, the color gradually became fainter and eventually the petals turned white (Figure 2D). Interestingly, the petals of ‘Radiant’ were red at stage I, and the color was gradually becoming pink during petal expansion (Figure 2C). Overall, ‘Royalty’ has the most red and vivid flowers, while the ‘Flame’ petals are almost white during petal development, and ‘Radiant’ petals have a significantly color fade process during petal expansion. Next, it is determined how the anthocyanins color the three typical cultivars.

Bottom Line: The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'.Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines.We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China; College of Horticulture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China.

ABSTRACT
Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

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