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Tungiasis--a neglected disease with many challenges for global public health.

Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J, Ugbomoiko US, Sentongo E, Mbabazi P, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Krantz I, International Expert Group for Tungias - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

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Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a parasitic skin disease with origins in South America... If people have to sleep on the floor, sand fleas will also penetrate parts of the body other than the feet... Ectopic penetration sites are common in the poorest of the poor, in those who do not even have a bed... Similarly, classrooms in rural Africa with floors containing holes, cracks, and flaked mortar constitute ideal breeding and transmission places... Children, who often do not wear closed shoes, put their feet (many hosting a dozen viable sand fleas) on the ground, exposing their skin for many hours (Hermann Feldmeier, unpublished observation, 2013)... Individuals with sand flea disease feel ashamed as can be seen in other parasitic skin diseases with abhorrently inflamed skin... The broad array of symptoms and the social stigma associated with tungiasis do not make the burden of disease easy to assess... Reliable data on disease occurrence are available neither at national nor at regional levels... Tungiasis is an important emerging infection in travelers returning from endemic areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa... Studies in Brazil and Madagascar show that a twice-daily application of this repellent to the feet could reduce the attack rate by almost 100 percent, –... Existing tungiasis-associated morbidity was resolved within a couple of weeks and mobility was regained... From these studies one could conclude that acute—and to a lesser extent also chronic—pathology is reversible, if new penetrations are prevented... The same inequity issues and complex social determinants as in the field of the NTDs have perpetuated the transmission of tungiasis in resource-poor communities in South America and sub-Saharan Africa... WHO, through its regional offices for the Americas and Africa, should work to raise awareness among NTD stakeholders and formulate appropriate strategies to address this debilitating and mutilating parasitic skin disease that has unnecessarily plagued disadvantaged communities for centuries.

No MeSH data available.


Life cycle of T. penetrans in a tropical environment.The human, domestic, and sylvatic cycles overlap closely.
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pntd-0003133-g002: Life cycle of T. penetrans in a tropical environment.The human, domestic, and sylvatic cycles overlap closely.

Mentions: Three life cycles of the sand flea coexist in a tropical environment: a human, a domestic animal, and a sylvatic cycle (Figure 1). These cycles overlap, partially or totally, depending on the context (Figure 2). In rural South America, e.g., dogs and cats will be around in and out of the house during the day, whereas small rodents enter during the night. In Uganda, pigs, sheep, and goats inhabit the house with their owners during the night to prevent them from being stolen. Local patterns of cohabitation between humans and animals thus explain why different animal species will act as reservoirs for tungiasis in different settings [15]–[17].


Tungiasis--a neglected disease with many challenges for global public health.

Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J, Ugbomoiko US, Sentongo E, Mbabazi P, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Krantz I, International Expert Group for Tungias - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Life cycle of T. penetrans in a tropical environment.The human, domestic, and sylvatic cycles overlap closely.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214674&req=5

pntd-0003133-g002: Life cycle of T. penetrans in a tropical environment.The human, domestic, and sylvatic cycles overlap closely.
Mentions: Three life cycles of the sand flea coexist in a tropical environment: a human, a domestic animal, and a sylvatic cycle (Figure 1). These cycles overlap, partially or totally, depending on the context (Figure 2). In rural South America, e.g., dogs and cats will be around in and out of the house during the day, whereas small rodents enter during the night. In Uganda, pigs, sheep, and goats inhabit the house with their owners during the night to prevent them from being stolen. Local patterns of cohabitation between humans and animals thus explain why different animal species will act as reservoirs for tungiasis in different settings [15]–[17].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a parasitic skin disease with origins in South America... If people have to sleep on the floor, sand fleas will also penetrate parts of the body other than the feet... Ectopic penetration sites are common in the poorest of the poor, in those who do not even have a bed... Similarly, classrooms in rural Africa with floors containing holes, cracks, and flaked mortar constitute ideal breeding and transmission places... Children, who often do not wear closed shoes, put their feet (many hosting a dozen viable sand fleas) on the ground, exposing their skin for many hours (Hermann Feldmeier, unpublished observation, 2013)... Individuals with sand flea disease feel ashamed as can be seen in other parasitic skin diseases with abhorrently inflamed skin... The broad array of symptoms and the social stigma associated with tungiasis do not make the burden of disease easy to assess... Reliable data on disease occurrence are available neither at national nor at regional levels... Tungiasis is an important emerging infection in travelers returning from endemic areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa... Studies in Brazil and Madagascar show that a twice-daily application of this repellent to the feet could reduce the attack rate by almost 100 percent, –... Existing tungiasis-associated morbidity was resolved within a couple of weeks and mobility was regained... From these studies one could conclude that acute—and to a lesser extent also chronic—pathology is reversible, if new penetrations are prevented... The same inequity issues and complex social determinants as in the field of the NTDs have perpetuated the transmission of tungiasis in resource-poor communities in South America and sub-Saharan Africa... WHO, through its regional offices for the Americas and Africa, should work to raise awareness among NTD stakeholders and formulate appropriate strategies to address this debilitating and mutilating parasitic skin disease that has unnecessarily plagued disadvantaged communities for centuries.

No MeSH data available.