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Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

Ibarra-Cerdeña CN, Zaldívar-Riverón A, Peterson AT, Sánchez-Cordero V, Ramsey JM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered.Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene.While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecología Humana, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

ABSTRACT
The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

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Ecological niche models for sister species pairs.A: Triatoma p. protracta (red) and T. barberi; B: T. rubida (red) and T. nitida (blue); C: T. gerstaeckeri (red) and T. mexicana (blue); D: T. recurva (red) and T. longipennis (blue); E: T. phyllosoma (red) and T. mazzottii (blue); F: T. dimidiata group 2 (red) and T. dimidiata group1a (blue). Grey dots and squares represent the collection sites for each species. Diagonal lines in E and F indicate the overlapping niche range between the sister pairs.
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pntd-0003266-g003: Ecological niche models for sister species pairs.A: Triatoma p. protracta (red) and T. barberi; B: T. rubida (red) and T. nitida (blue); C: T. gerstaeckeri (red) and T. mexicana (blue); D: T. recurva (red) and T. longipennis (blue); E: T. phyllosoma (red) and T. mazzottii (blue); F: T. dimidiata group 2 (red) and T. dimidiata group1a (blue). Grey dots and squares represent the collection sites for each species. Diagonal lines in E and F indicate the overlapping niche range between the sister pairs.

Mentions: The ENM for all NCA Triatoma species covers most of the regional territory of Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico and the southern United States (Figure 3). There was no range overlap between sister species of inter-biogeographical regions (i.e. the Neotropical T. barberi and the Neartic T. p. protracta), in contrast to the extensive range overlap in species pairs within the Neotropical region (T. mazzottii-T. phyllosoma and T. dimidiata groups 1a and 2; Figure 3E–F). The broadest potential distribution range was T. p. protracta in the US and Mexico, almost crossing the complete continental longitudinal gradient, while its sister species, T. barberi, spans both Nearctic and Neotropical regions, covering the highlands of the Transvolcanic Belt (Figure 3A). In general, sister species have allopatric potential distribution along a north/south latitudinal pattern (Figure 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D), although sub-tropical species pairs' potential distributions are partially sympatric (Figure 3E–F).


Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

Ibarra-Cerdeña CN, Zaldívar-Riverón A, Peterson AT, Sánchez-Cordero V, Ramsey JM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Ecological niche models for sister species pairs.A: Triatoma p. protracta (red) and T. barberi; B: T. rubida (red) and T. nitida (blue); C: T. gerstaeckeri (red) and T. mexicana (blue); D: T. recurva (red) and T. longipennis (blue); E: T. phyllosoma (red) and T. mazzottii (blue); F: T. dimidiata group 2 (red) and T. dimidiata group1a (blue). Grey dots and squares represent the collection sites for each species. Diagonal lines in E and F indicate the overlapping niche range between the sister pairs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214621&req=5

pntd-0003266-g003: Ecological niche models for sister species pairs.A: Triatoma p. protracta (red) and T. barberi; B: T. rubida (red) and T. nitida (blue); C: T. gerstaeckeri (red) and T. mexicana (blue); D: T. recurva (red) and T. longipennis (blue); E: T. phyllosoma (red) and T. mazzottii (blue); F: T. dimidiata group 2 (red) and T. dimidiata group1a (blue). Grey dots and squares represent the collection sites for each species. Diagonal lines in E and F indicate the overlapping niche range between the sister pairs.
Mentions: The ENM for all NCA Triatoma species covers most of the regional territory of Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico and the southern United States (Figure 3). There was no range overlap between sister species of inter-biogeographical regions (i.e. the Neotropical T. barberi and the Neartic T. p. protracta), in contrast to the extensive range overlap in species pairs within the Neotropical region (T. mazzottii-T. phyllosoma and T. dimidiata groups 1a and 2; Figure 3E–F). The broadest potential distribution range was T. p. protracta in the US and Mexico, almost crossing the complete continental longitudinal gradient, while its sister species, T. barberi, spans both Nearctic and Neotropical regions, covering the highlands of the Transvolcanic Belt (Figure 3A). In general, sister species have allopatric potential distribution along a north/south latitudinal pattern (Figure 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D), although sub-tropical species pairs' potential distributions are partially sympatric (Figure 3E–F).

Bottom Line: A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered.Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene.While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecología Humana, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

ABSTRACT
The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus