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Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

Ibarra-Cerdeña CN, Zaldívar-Riverón A, Peterson AT, Sánchez-Cordero V, Ramsey JM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered.Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene.While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecología Humana, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

ABSTRACT
The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

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Divergence time estimates for Triatominae clades.Asterisks and black circles above branches indicate clades supported by PP of 0.9–0.94 and ≥0.95, respectively.
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pntd-0003266-g002: Divergence time estimates for Triatominae clades.Asterisks and black circles above branches indicate clades supported by PP of 0.9–0.94 and ≥0.95, respectively.

Mentions: Divergence time estimates between the Triatoma species of NCA and South America are on the order of 14.1–22 my. Separation of the Central American clade (Panstrongylus spp. and the rubrofasciata complex) and that from North America (including Mexico) was estimated to have a similar age to the previous (13–20 my). Divergence between Nearctic (T. p. protracta and T. r. rubida) and Neotropical (T. phyllosoma and T. dimidiata) species was dated to have occurred during the Miocene (10–16 my). Speciation events of the Neotropical species occurred principally during the Pleistocene, in contrast to the Pliocene for the Nearctic species (Figure 2).


Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

Ibarra-Cerdeña CN, Zaldívar-Riverón A, Peterson AT, Sánchez-Cordero V, Ramsey JM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Divergence time estimates for Triatominae clades.Asterisks and black circles above branches indicate clades supported by PP of 0.9–0.94 and ≥0.95, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214621&req=5

pntd-0003266-g002: Divergence time estimates for Triatominae clades.Asterisks and black circles above branches indicate clades supported by PP of 0.9–0.94 and ≥0.95, respectively.
Mentions: Divergence time estimates between the Triatoma species of NCA and South America are on the order of 14.1–22 my. Separation of the Central American clade (Panstrongylus spp. and the rubrofasciata complex) and that from North America (including Mexico) was estimated to have a similar age to the previous (13–20 my). Divergence between Nearctic (T. p. protracta and T. r. rubida) and Neotropical (T. phyllosoma and T. dimidiata) species was dated to have occurred during the Miocene (10–16 my). Speciation events of the Neotropical species occurred principally during the Pleistocene, in contrast to the Pliocene for the Nearctic species (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered.Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene.While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecología Humana, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav), Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

ABSTRACT
The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus