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Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

Mueller JL, Rueschemeyer SA, Ono K, Sugiura M, Sadato N, Nakamura A - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning.Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged.The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück Osnabrück, Germany ; Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

No MeSH data available.


Result of the main effect of the 2 × 4 ANOVA with the factors CONDITION and BLOCK and post-hoc t-tests to test simple main effects rendered on an inflated standard MNI cortical surface. (A) Shows the main effect of the factor BLOCK (learning block 1–4). (B–D) show t-contrasts between the first (B), the second (C), and the third (D) learning block with the last learning block in order to illustrate the direction of changes over time. Colored areas represent the extent of activations, not statistical values of individual voxels.
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Figure 3: Result of the main effect of the 2 × 4 ANOVA with the factors CONDITION and BLOCK and post-hoc t-tests to test simple main effects rendered on an inflated standard MNI cortical surface. (A) Shows the main effect of the factor BLOCK (learning block 1–4). (B–D) show t-contrasts between the first (B), the second (C), and the third (D) learning block with the last learning block in order to illustrate the direction of changes over time. Colored areas represent the extent of activations, not statistical values of individual voxels.

Mentions: The main effect of learning block revealed a widespread network of brain areas with activation changes across the four learning blocks (cf. Figures 3A, 4, Table 1). Pairwise contrasts of each learning block with the last learning block revealed that most changes were decreasing activations over time (cf. Figures 3B–D, 4, Table 1). The strongest decreasing activations were found in bilateral temporo-occipital and cerebellar areas and in left frontal and subcortical areas. In the right hemisphere frontal activation was observed too, but much less widespread. Additionally there was an involvement of left superior temporal sulcus, bilateral pre-SMA, cingulate cortex and superior parietal cortex. There were only a few areas that showed increasing activation over time. This was the case for bilateral middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus and right anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal areas in the cuneus and orbitofrontal cortex. Subcortically, the pallidum was involved bilaterally (cf. Figure 4).


Neural networks involved in learning lexical-semantic and syntactic information in a second language.

Mueller JL, Rueschemeyer SA, Ono K, Sugiura M, Sadato N, Nakamura A - Front Psychol (2014)

Result of the main effect of the 2 × 4 ANOVA with the factors CONDITION and BLOCK and post-hoc t-tests to test simple main effects rendered on an inflated standard MNI cortical surface. (A) Shows the main effect of the factor BLOCK (learning block 1–4). (B–D) show t-contrasts between the first (B), the second (C), and the third (D) learning block with the last learning block in order to illustrate the direction of changes over time. Colored areas represent the extent of activations, not statistical values of individual voxels.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214356&req=5

Figure 3: Result of the main effect of the 2 × 4 ANOVA with the factors CONDITION and BLOCK and post-hoc t-tests to test simple main effects rendered on an inflated standard MNI cortical surface. (A) Shows the main effect of the factor BLOCK (learning block 1–4). (B–D) show t-contrasts between the first (B), the second (C), and the third (D) learning block with the last learning block in order to illustrate the direction of changes over time. Colored areas represent the extent of activations, not statistical values of individual voxels.
Mentions: The main effect of learning block revealed a widespread network of brain areas with activation changes across the four learning blocks (cf. Figures 3A, 4, Table 1). Pairwise contrasts of each learning block with the last learning block revealed that most changes were decreasing activations over time (cf. Figures 3B–D, 4, Table 1). The strongest decreasing activations were found in bilateral temporo-occipital and cerebellar areas and in left frontal and subcortical areas. In the right hemisphere frontal activation was observed too, but much less widespread. Additionally there was an involvement of left superior temporal sulcus, bilateral pre-SMA, cingulate cortex and superior parietal cortex. There were only a few areas that showed increasing activation over time. This was the case for bilateral middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus and right anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal areas in the cuneus and orbitofrontal cortex. Subcortically, the pallidum was involved bilaterally (cf. Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning.Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged.The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück Osnabrück, Germany ; Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of language acquisition in a realistic learning environment. Japanese native speakers were trained in a miniature version of German prior to fMRI scanning. During scanning they listened to (1) familiar sentences, (2) sentences including a novel sentence structure, and (3) sentences containing a novel word while visual context provided referential information. Learning-related decreases of brain activation over time were found in a mainly left-hemispheric network comprising classical frontal and temporal language areas as well as parietal and subcortical regions and were largely overlapping for novel words and the novel sentence structure in initial stages of learning. Differences occurred at later stages of learning during which content-specific activation patterns in prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices emerged. The results are taken as evidence for a domain-general network supporting the initial stages of language learning which dynamically adapts as learners become proficient.

No MeSH data available.