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Lifetime stress experience: transgenerational epigenetics and germ cell programming.

Bale TL - Dialogues Clin Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: Animal models of parental stress have examined relevant offspring phenotypes and transgenerational outcomes, and provided unique insight into the germ cell epigenetic changes associated with disruptions in neurodevelopment.Abstract available from the publisher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, and Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

ABSTRACT
The transgenerational epigenetic programming involved in the passage of environmental exposures to stressful periods from one generation to the next has been examined in human populations, and mechanistically in animal models. Epidemiological studies suggest that gestational exposures to environmental factors including stress are strongly associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Both maternal and paternal life experiences with stress can be passed on to offspring directly during pregnancy or through epigenetic marks in the germ cell. Animal models of parental stress have examined relevant offspring phenotypes and transgenerational outcomes, and provided unique insight into the germ cell epigenetic changes associated with disruptions in neurodevelopment. Understanding germline susceptibility to exogenous signals during stress exposure and the identification of the types of epigenetic marks is critical for defining mechanisms underlying disease risk.

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Animal models of paternal germ cell programming have demonstrated clear transgenerational epigenetic outcomes following exposure to various perturbations in which the male was exposed prior to breeding. Recent studies have included models of social defeat, chronic stress, cocaine exposure, dietary manipulations, endocrine disrupters, and conditioned fear.35-43
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DialoguesClinNeurosci-16-297-g002: Animal models of paternal germ cell programming have demonstrated clear transgenerational epigenetic outcomes following exposure to various perturbations in which the male was exposed prior to breeding. Recent studies have included models of social defeat, chronic stress, cocaine exposure, dietary manipulations, endocrine disrupters, and conditioned fear.35-43

Mentions: In animal studies, transgenerational outcomes following maternal exposures have been much more broadly examined than those of paternal modes of transmission in which the male was directly exposed prior to breeding. However, recent paternal studies have included models of social defeat, chronic stress, cocaine exposure, dietary manipulations, endocrine disrupters, and conditioned fear Figure 2.35-42 While most maternal “exposures” are examined during pregnancy, and thus have the ability to affect the offspring more directly during somatic development, paternal studies have largely focused on stress experienced prior to mating and thus are thought to impact future offspring via germ cell reprogramming. One of the great advantages of studying transgenerational epigenetics in paternal rather than maternal transmission is that in most rodent studies males do not interact directly with their offspring and thus are only able to pass on information via germ cells, ie, if the sire's offspring are programmed differently as a result of his life experiences, then that information must be present in his sperm. This affords the unique ability to ascertain contributing epigenetic marks in a relatively homogenous and easily obtainable tissue source in which DNA methylation, histone modifications, or microRNAs (miRs) can be examined (as discussed below).


Lifetime stress experience: transgenerational epigenetics and germ cell programming.

Bale TL - Dialogues Clin Neurosci (2014)

Animal models of paternal germ cell programming have demonstrated clear transgenerational epigenetic outcomes following exposure to various perturbations in which the male was exposed prior to breeding. Recent studies have included models of social defeat, chronic stress, cocaine exposure, dietary manipulations, endocrine disrupters, and conditioned fear.35-43
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4214173&req=5

DialoguesClinNeurosci-16-297-g002: Animal models of paternal germ cell programming have demonstrated clear transgenerational epigenetic outcomes following exposure to various perturbations in which the male was exposed prior to breeding. Recent studies have included models of social defeat, chronic stress, cocaine exposure, dietary manipulations, endocrine disrupters, and conditioned fear.35-43
Mentions: In animal studies, transgenerational outcomes following maternal exposures have been much more broadly examined than those of paternal modes of transmission in which the male was directly exposed prior to breeding. However, recent paternal studies have included models of social defeat, chronic stress, cocaine exposure, dietary manipulations, endocrine disrupters, and conditioned fear Figure 2.35-42 While most maternal “exposures” are examined during pregnancy, and thus have the ability to affect the offspring more directly during somatic development, paternal studies have largely focused on stress experienced prior to mating and thus are thought to impact future offspring via germ cell reprogramming. One of the great advantages of studying transgenerational epigenetics in paternal rather than maternal transmission is that in most rodent studies males do not interact directly with their offspring and thus are only able to pass on information via germ cells, ie, if the sire's offspring are programmed differently as a result of his life experiences, then that information must be present in his sperm. This affords the unique ability to ascertain contributing epigenetic marks in a relatively homogenous and easily obtainable tissue source in which DNA methylation, histone modifications, or microRNAs (miRs) can be examined (as discussed below).

Bottom Line: Animal models of parental stress have examined relevant offspring phenotypes and transgenerational outcomes, and provided unique insight into the germ cell epigenetic changes associated with disruptions in neurodevelopment.Abstract available from the publisher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, and Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

ABSTRACT
The transgenerational epigenetic programming involved in the passage of environmental exposures to stressful periods from one generation to the next has been examined in human populations, and mechanistically in animal models. Epidemiological studies suggest that gestational exposures to environmental factors including stress are strongly associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Both maternal and paternal life experiences with stress can be passed on to offspring directly during pregnancy or through epigenetic marks in the germ cell. Animal models of parental stress have examined relevant offspring phenotypes and transgenerational outcomes, and provided unique insight into the germ cell epigenetic changes associated with disruptions in neurodevelopment. Understanding germline susceptibility to exogenous signals during stress exposure and the identification of the types of epigenetic marks is critical for defining mechanisms underlying disease risk.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus