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Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3.

Song JH, Choi HJ, Song HH, Hong EH, Lee BR, Oh SR, Choi K, Yeo SG, Lee YP, Cho S, Ko HJ - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL.The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells.Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3).

Methods: Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.

Results: The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Morphological assessment of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected Vero cells following ginsenoside treatment. CVB3-infected and uninfected Vero cells were treated with either ribavirin or 100 μg/mL ginsenosides. After staining of viable cells with sulforhodamine B (SRB), cell morphology was assessed by microscopy. (A) Untreated, uninfected cells; (B–I) uninfected cells treated with ginsenosides (B) Rb1, (C) Rb2, (D) Rd, (E) Rc, (F) Re, (G) Rf, and (H) Rg2; and with ribavirin; (J) untreated CVB3-infected cells; (K–R) CVB3-infected cells treated with ginsenosides (K) Rb1, (L) Rb2, (M) Rd, (N) Rc, (O) Re, (P) Rf, (Q) Rg2; and with (R) ribavirin.
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fig4: Morphological assessment of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected Vero cells following ginsenoside treatment. CVB3-infected and uninfected Vero cells were treated with either ribavirin or 100 μg/mL ginsenosides. After staining of viable cells with sulforhodamine B (SRB), cell morphology was assessed by microscopy. (A) Untreated, uninfected cells; (B–I) uninfected cells treated with ginsenosides (B) Rb1, (C) Rb2, (D) Rd, (E) Rc, (F) Re, (G) Rf, and (H) Rg2; and with ribavirin; (J) untreated CVB3-infected cells; (K–R) CVB3-infected cells treated with ginsenosides (K) Rb1, (L) Rb2, (M) Rd, (N) Rc, (O) Re, (P) Rf, (Q) Rg2; and with (R) ribavirin.

Mentions: In order to examine the potential morphological alteration of Vero cells by ginsenosides, cells were treated with the compounds for 48 h and assessed by microscopy. In the absence of infection with CVB3, cells treated with DMSO or 100 μg/mL ginsenosides showed no obvious signs of cytotoxicity, exhibiting the typical spread-out shape associated with the normal morphology of Vero cells (Fig. 4). Infection of Vero cells with CVB3 resulted in a severe CPE, whereas CVB3-infected Vero cells treated with ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2, exhibited noticeably reduced CPE compared with untreated CVB3-infected cells. Treatment of CVB3-infected Vero cells with ribavirin significantly reduced CPE. These results indicate that the CPE of CVB3 infection is prevented by ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2.


Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3.

Song JH, Choi HJ, Song HH, Hong EH, Lee BR, Oh SR, Choi K, Yeo SG, Lee YP, Cho S, Ko HJ - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Morphological assessment of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected Vero cells following ginsenoside treatment. CVB3-infected and uninfected Vero cells were treated with either ribavirin or 100 μg/mL ginsenosides. After staining of viable cells with sulforhodamine B (SRB), cell morphology was assessed by microscopy. (A) Untreated, uninfected cells; (B–I) uninfected cells treated with ginsenosides (B) Rb1, (C) Rb2, (D) Rd, (E) Rc, (F) Re, (G) Rf, and (H) Rg2; and with ribavirin; (J) untreated CVB3-infected cells; (K–R) CVB3-infected cells treated with ginsenosides (K) Rb1, (L) Rb2, (M) Rd, (N) Rc, (O) Re, (P) Rf, (Q) Rg2; and with (R) ribavirin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4213867&req=5

fig4: Morphological assessment of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected Vero cells following ginsenoside treatment. CVB3-infected and uninfected Vero cells were treated with either ribavirin or 100 μg/mL ginsenosides. After staining of viable cells with sulforhodamine B (SRB), cell morphology was assessed by microscopy. (A) Untreated, uninfected cells; (B–I) uninfected cells treated with ginsenosides (B) Rb1, (C) Rb2, (D) Rd, (E) Rc, (F) Re, (G) Rf, and (H) Rg2; and with ribavirin; (J) untreated CVB3-infected cells; (K–R) CVB3-infected cells treated with ginsenosides (K) Rb1, (L) Rb2, (M) Rd, (N) Rc, (O) Re, (P) Rf, (Q) Rg2; and with (R) ribavirin.
Mentions: In order to examine the potential morphological alteration of Vero cells by ginsenosides, cells were treated with the compounds for 48 h and assessed by microscopy. In the absence of infection with CVB3, cells treated with DMSO or 100 μg/mL ginsenosides showed no obvious signs of cytotoxicity, exhibiting the typical spread-out shape associated with the normal morphology of Vero cells (Fig. 4). Infection of Vero cells with CVB3 resulted in a severe CPE, whereas CVB3-infected Vero cells treated with ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2, exhibited noticeably reduced CPE compared with untreated CVB3-infected cells. Treatment of CVB3-infected Vero cells with ribavirin significantly reduced CPE. These results indicate that the CPE of CVB3 infection is prevented by ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2.

Bottom Line: Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL.The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells.Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3).

Methods: Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.

Results: The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus