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Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3.

Song JH, Choi HJ, Song HH, Hong EH, Lee BR, Oh SR, Choi K, Yeo SG, Lee YP, Cho S, Ko HJ - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL.The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells.Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3).

Methods: Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.

Results: The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against HRV3 in HeLa cells. HeLa cells were infected with HRV3, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations of ginsenosides for 48 h. Antiviral activity was assessed using a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent cell viability assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. HRV3, human rhinovirus 3.
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fig3: Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against HRV3 in HeLa cells. HeLa cells were infected with HRV3, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations of ginsenosides for 48 h. Antiviral activity was assessed using a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent cell viability assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. HRV3, human rhinovirus 3.

Mentions: To assess the antiviral activity of ginsenosides against HRV, HeLa cells were infected with HRV3 and treated with each of the seven ginsenosides of interest at the indicated concentrations. HRV3 infection itself induced cell death in HeLa cells and resulted in 50% cell viability (Fig. 3). Similar to the antiviral effect against CVB3, two PT-type ginsenosides (Rf and Rg2) significantly increased cell viability to 80% (Fig. 3) as shown using the luminescent cell viability assay described in the “Materials and methods” section. The ginsenoside Re, however, had little protective effect in HRV3-infected HeLa cells. Furthermore, none of the PD-type ginsenosides (Rd, Rc, Rb1, and Rb2) had a protective on cell viability, but instead the compounds (100 μg/mL) significantly increased HRV3 infection-induced cell death in HeLa cells (Fig. 3), despite not inducing cytotoxicity in uninfected HeLa cells (Table 1). Collectively, these results suggest that the PT-type ginsenosides Rf and Rg2 have antiviral activity against HRV3.


Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3.

Song JH, Choi HJ, Song HH, Hong EH, Lee BR, Oh SR, Choi K, Yeo SG, Lee YP, Cho S, Ko HJ - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against HRV3 in HeLa cells. HeLa cells were infected with HRV3, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations of ginsenosides for 48 h. Antiviral activity was assessed using a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent cell viability assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. HRV3, human rhinovirus 3.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4213867&req=5

fig3: Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against HRV3 in HeLa cells. HeLa cells were infected with HRV3, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations of ginsenosides for 48 h. Antiviral activity was assessed using a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent cell viability assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. HRV3, human rhinovirus 3.
Mentions: To assess the antiviral activity of ginsenosides against HRV, HeLa cells were infected with HRV3 and treated with each of the seven ginsenosides of interest at the indicated concentrations. HRV3 infection itself induced cell death in HeLa cells and resulted in 50% cell viability (Fig. 3). Similar to the antiviral effect against CVB3, two PT-type ginsenosides (Rf and Rg2) significantly increased cell viability to 80% (Fig. 3) as shown using the luminescent cell viability assay described in the “Materials and methods” section. The ginsenoside Re, however, had little protective effect in HRV3-infected HeLa cells. Furthermore, none of the PD-type ginsenosides (Rd, Rc, Rb1, and Rb2) had a protective on cell viability, but instead the compounds (100 μg/mL) significantly increased HRV3 infection-induced cell death in HeLa cells (Fig. 3), despite not inducing cytotoxicity in uninfected HeLa cells (Table 1). Collectively, these results suggest that the PT-type ginsenosides Rf and Rg2 have antiviral activity against HRV3.

Bottom Line: Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL.The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells.Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3).

Methods: Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.

Results: The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus