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Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3.

Song JH, Choi HJ, Song HH, Hong EH, Lee BR, Oh SR, Choi K, Yeo SG, Lee YP, Cho S, Ko HJ - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL.The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells.Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3).

Methods: Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.

Results: The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against EV71 in Vero cells. Vero cells were infected with EV71, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations (0.1–100 μg/mL) of ginsenosides for 48 h. Ribavirin was used as a positive control for antiviral activity. Antiviral activity was assessed using a CPE reduction assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. CPE, cytopathic effect; EV71, enterovirus 71.
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fig2: Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against EV71 in Vero cells. Vero cells were infected with EV71, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations (0.1–100 μg/mL) of ginsenosides for 48 h. Ribavirin was used as a positive control for antiviral activity. Antiviral activity was assessed using a CPE reduction assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. CPE, cytopathic effect; EV71, enterovirus 71.

Mentions: Together with coxsackievirus A16, EV71 is one of the two major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease, and thus we sought to investigate whether ginsenosides have antiviral activity against EV71 infection in Vero cells. Most ginsenosides assessed using the SRB method did not have significant antiviral activity against EV71, and only ginsenoside Rg slightly inhibited EV71 infection-induced cytotoxicity (Fig. 2). Infection with EV71 induced substantial cell death in Vero cells, resulting in approximately 25% cell viability. The antiviral effect of Rg2 (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) in EV71-infected cells improved cell viability by 40%. The antiviral effect of Rg2 was shown to be dose-dependent, and the maximal antiviral efficacy of the compound is comparable to that of ribavirin. By contrast, other ginsenosides tested did not have significant antiviral activity against EV71 infection (Fig. 2).


Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3.

Song JH, Choi HJ, Song HH, Hong EH, Lee BR, Oh SR, Choi K, Yeo SG, Lee YP, Cho S, Ko HJ - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against EV71 in Vero cells. Vero cells were infected with EV71, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations (0.1–100 μg/mL) of ginsenosides for 48 h. Ribavirin was used as a positive control for antiviral activity. Antiviral activity was assessed using a CPE reduction assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. CPE, cytopathic effect; EV71, enterovirus 71.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4213867&req=5

fig2: Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against EV71 in Vero cells. Vero cells were infected with EV71, after which they were treated with the indicated concentrations (0.1–100 μg/mL) of ginsenosides for 48 h. Ribavirin was used as a positive control for antiviral activity. Antiviral activity was assessed using a CPE reduction assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD from three independent experiments each carried out in triplicate. CPE, cytopathic effect; EV71, enterovirus 71.
Mentions: Together with coxsackievirus A16, EV71 is one of the two major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease, and thus we sought to investigate whether ginsenosides have antiviral activity against EV71 infection in Vero cells. Most ginsenosides assessed using the SRB method did not have significant antiviral activity against EV71, and only ginsenoside Rg slightly inhibited EV71 infection-induced cytotoxicity (Fig. 2). Infection with EV71 induced substantial cell death in Vero cells, resulting in approximately 25% cell viability. The antiviral effect of Rg2 (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) in EV71-infected cells improved cell viability by 40%. The antiviral effect of Rg2 was shown to be dose-dependent, and the maximal antiviral efficacy of the compound is comparable to that of ribavirin. By contrast, other ginsenosides tested did not have significant antiviral activity against EV71 infection (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL.The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells.Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3).

Methods: Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.

Results: The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus