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Investigation of ginsenosides in different tissues after elicitor treatment in Panax ginseng.

Oh JY, Kim YJ, Jang MG, Joo SC, Kwon WS, Kim SY, Jung SK, Yang DC - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Bottom Line: In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis.The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ.Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials and Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on ginsenoside production in different organs of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was evaluated after the whole plant was dipped in an MJ-containing solution. MJ can induce the production of antioxidant defense genes and secondary metabolites in plants. In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis. Although a previous study focused on the application of MJ to affect ginsenoside production in adventitious roots, we conducted our research on entire plants by evaluating the effect of exogenous MJ on ginsenoside production with the aim of obtaining new approaches to study ginsenoside biosynthesis response to MJ in vivo.

Methods: Different parts of MJ-treated ginseng plants were analyzed for ginsenoside contents (fine root, root body, epidermis, rhizome, stem, and leaf) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ. Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis. Application of MJ enhanced protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, whereas chilling treatment induced protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that the production of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides is differently affected by abiotic and biotic stresses in the ginseng plant, and they might play different defense mechanism roles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Individual ginsenoside contents by methyl jasmonate (MJ) elicitation in different ginseng plant tissues. Three-yr-old ginseng plants were treated with 50μM of MJ for 2 d. Individual ginsenoside contents in the leaf, stem, rhizome, epidermis, root body, and fine root were analyzed. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd, and protopanaxatriol (PPT) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Re, Rg, Rg1, and Rg2. Vertical bars indicate the mean value ± standard deviation from three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 denote significant difference from the control, respectively.
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fig3: Individual ginsenoside contents by methyl jasmonate (MJ) elicitation in different ginseng plant tissues. Three-yr-old ginseng plants were treated with 50μM of MJ for 2 d. Individual ginsenoside contents in the leaf, stem, rhizome, epidermis, root body, and fine root were analyzed. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd, and protopanaxatriol (PPT) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Re, Rg, Rg1, and Rg2. Vertical bars indicate the mean value ± standard deviation from three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 denote significant difference from the control, respectively.

Mentions: Fig. 3 shows the accumulation of individual ginsenosides in different tissues. The content of ginsenoside Re in aerial parts (leaf and stem) of the ginseng plant was the highest. In leaf, ginsenoside Re and Rd contents were mainly enhanced. The ratio between PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides was significantly changed in the stem. The content of ginsenoside Rd was increased more than other ginsenosides; therefore, the ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside was increased. In rhizome, the ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside was also increased due to accumulated ginsenoside Rd, although the content of ginsenoside Rg1 in the rhizome was the highest. The greatest increase of ginsenoside level was shown in the root body. All individual ginsenoside contents were increased. Levels of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 were doubled as compared with the control. Although the content of ginsenoside Rg1 was the highest, ginsenoside Rd was enhanced fivefold. In addition, ginsenoside Rc and Rb2, which was not detected in the control, accumulated after MJ treatment, showing in the increased ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside. In fine root, all individual ginsenosides were also increased. Fine roots contained mostly ginsenoside Re, but the ratio of ginsenoside Rb1 was enhanced upon MJ treatment. Therefore, the ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside was increased to greater than that of the PPT-type ginsenoside. In the epidermis, all individual ginsenoside accumulation was similar to the control.


Investigation of ginsenosides in different tissues after elicitor treatment in Panax ginseng.

Oh JY, Kim YJ, Jang MG, Joo SC, Kwon WS, Kim SY, Jung SK, Yang DC - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Individual ginsenoside contents by methyl jasmonate (MJ) elicitation in different ginseng plant tissues. Three-yr-old ginseng plants were treated with 50μM of MJ for 2 d. Individual ginsenoside contents in the leaf, stem, rhizome, epidermis, root body, and fine root were analyzed. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd, and protopanaxatriol (PPT) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Re, Rg, Rg1, and Rg2. Vertical bars indicate the mean value ± standard deviation from three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 denote significant difference from the control, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4213849&req=5

fig3: Individual ginsenoside contents by methyl jasmonate (MJ) elicitation in different ginseng plant tissues. Three-yr-old ginseng plants were treated with 50μM of MJ for 2 d. Individual ginsenoside contents in the leaf, stem, rhizome, epidermis, root body, and fine root were analyzed. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd, and protopanaxatriol (PPT) indicates the sum of ginsenoside Re, Rg, Rg1, and Rg2. Vertical bars indicate the mean value ± standard deviation from three independent experiments. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 denote significant difference from the control, respectively.
Mentions: Fig. 3 shows the accumulation of individual ginsenosides in different tissues. The content of ginsenoside Re in aerial parts (leaf and stem) of the ginseng plant was the highest. In leaf, ginsenoside Re and Rd contents were mainly enhanced. The ratio between PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides was significantly changed in the stem. The content of ginsenoside Rd was increased more than other ginsenosides; therefore, the ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside was increased. In rhizome, the ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside was also increased due to accumulated ginsenoside Rd, although the content of ginsenoside Rg1 in the rhizome was the highest. The greatest increase of ginsenoside level was shown in the root body. All individual ginsenoside contents were increased. Levels of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 were doubled as compared with the control. Although the content of ginsenoside Rg1 was the highest, ginsenoside Rd was enhanced fivefold. In addition, ginsenoside Rc and Rb2, which was not detected in the control, accumulated after MJ treatment, showing in the increased ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside. In fine root, all individual ginsenosides were also increased. Fine roots contained mostly ginsenoside Re, but the ratio of ginsenoside Rb1 was enhanced upon MJ treatment. Therefore, the ratio of PPD-type ginsenoside was increased to greater than that of the PPT-type ginsenoside. In the epidermis, all individual ginsenoside accumulation was similar to the control.

Bottom Line: In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis.The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ.Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials and Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on ginsenoside production in different organs of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was evaluated after the whole plant was dipped in an MJ-containing solution. MJ can induce the production of antioxidant defense genes and secondary metabolites in plants. In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis. Although a previous study focused on the application of MJ to affect ginsenoside production in adventitious roots, we conducted our research on entire plants by evaluating the effect of exogenous MJ on ginsenoside production with the aim of obtaining new approaches to study ginsenoside biosynthesis response to MJ in vivo.

Methods: Different parts of MJ-treated ginseng plants were analyzed for ginsenoside contents (fine root, root body, epidermis, rhizome, stem, and leaf) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ. Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis. Application of MJ enhanced protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, whereas chilling treatment induced protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that the production of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides is differently affected by abiotic and biotic stresses in the ginseng plant, and they might play different defense mechanism roles.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus