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Korean Red Ginseng attenuates anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal in rats.

Zhao Z, Kim YW, Wu Y, Zhang J, Lee JH, Li X, Cho IJ, Park SM, Jung DH, Yang CH, Kim SC, Zhao R - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Bottom Line: This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic effects of KRG extract (KRGE) during ethanol withdrawal (EW) and the involvement of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine (DA) system in it.HPLC analyses showed KRGE reversed EW-induced decreases of DA and DOPAC in a dose-dependent way.These results suggest that KRGE has anxiolytic effects during EW by improving the mesoamygdaloid DA system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, China ; Medical Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is known to have antianxiety properties. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic effects of KRG extract (KRGE) during ethanol withdrawal (EW) and the involvement of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine (DA) system in it.

Methods: Rats were treated with 3 g/kg/d of ethanol for 28 d, and subjected to 3 d of withdrawal. During EW, KRGE (20 mg/kg/d or 60 mg/kg/d, p.o.) was given to rats once/d for 3 d. Thirty min after the final dose of KRGE, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM), and plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were determined by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). In addition, concentrations of DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) were also measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: The EPM test and RIA revealed KRGE inhibited anxiety-like behavior and the over secretion of plasma CORT during EW. Furthermore, the behavioral effect was blocked by a selective DA D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist (eticlopride) but not by a selective DA D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist (SCH23390). HPLC analyses showed KRGE reversed EW-induced decreases of DA and DOPAC in a dose-dependent way. Additionally, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays showed that KRGE prevented the EW-induced reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein expression in the CeA and TH mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA).

Conclusion: These results suggest that KRGE has anxiolytic effects during EW by improving the mesoamygdaloid DA system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal (EW). The anxiety-like behavior was measured in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 4–6) of the percentages of time spent in the open arms of the EPM for a 5-min test period. *p < 0.001, compared with S group (or S + MRS + DW group); **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.01, compared with Eth group (or Eth + MRS + DW group); ****p < 0.01, compared with Eth + MRS + KRGE60 (analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test). Eti, eticlopride; Eth, ethanol; KRGE20, 20 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; KRGE60, 60 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; MRS, modified Ringer's solution; S, saline; SCH, SCH23390.
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fig3: Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal (EW). The anxiety-like behavior was measured in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 4–6) of the percentages of time spent in the open arms of the EPM for a 5-min test period. *p < 0.001, compared with S group (or S + MRS + DW group); **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.01, compared with Eth group (or Eth + MRS + DW group); ****p < 0.01, compared with Eth + MRS + KRGE60 (analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test). Eti, eticlopride; Eth, ethanol; KRGE20, 20 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; KRGE60, 60 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; MRS, modified Ringer's solution; S, saline; SCH, SCH23390.

Mentions: The presence of anxiety-like behavior was evident in rats undergoing EW during the EPM tests, as this group spent less time in the open arms than the saline-treated controls [F (3, 18) = 19.9, p < 0.001; saline-treated control group (31.2 ± 6.3%, n = 6) vs. ethanol-treated control group (10.2 ± 2.2%, n = 6), p < 0.001]. Both doses of KRGE administered (20 mg/kg/d and 60 mg/kg/d) significantly attenuated anxiety-like behavior [ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE20 group (23.8 ± 5.4%, n = 5), p < 0.01; ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE60 group (29.8 ± 6.1%, n = 5), p < 0.001] with more increased percentages observed in the 60 mg/kg group than in the 20 mg/kg group, however, the post hoc test failed to show a significant difference between the two groups (ethanol + KRGE20 group vs. ethanol + KRGE60 group, p > 0.05) (Fig. 3A).


Korean Red Ginseng attenuates anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal in rats.

Zhao Z, Kim YW, Wu Y, Zhang J, Lee JH, Li X, Cho IJ, Park SM, Jung DH, Yang CH, Kim SC, Zhao R - J Ginseng Res (2014)

Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal (EW). The anxiety-like behavior was measured in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 4–6) of the percentages of time spent in the open arms of the EPM for a 5-min test period. *p < 0.001, compared with S group (or S + MRS + DW group); **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.01, compared with Eth group (or Eth + MRS + DW group); ****p < 0.01, compared with Eth + MRS + KRGE60 (analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test). Eti, eticlopride; Eth, ethanol; KRGE20, 20 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; KRGE60, 60 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; MRS, modified Ringer's solution; S, saline; SCH, SCH23390.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4213848&req=5

fig3: Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal (EW). The anxiety-like behavior was measured in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 4–6) of the percentages of time spent in the open arms of the EPM for a 5-min test period. *p < 0.001, compared with S group (or S + MRS + DW group); **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.01, compared with Eth group (or Eth + MRS + DW group); ****p < 0.01, compared with Eth + MRS + KRGE60 (analysis of variance, followed by the post hoc Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test). Eti, eticlopride; Eth, ethanol; KRGE20, 20 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; KRGE60, 60 mg/kg/d of KRGE for 3 d; MRS, modified Ringer's solution; S, saline; SCH, SCH23390.
Mentions: The presence of anxiety-like behavior was evident in rats undergoing EW during the EPM tests, as this group spent less time in the open arms than the saline-treated controls [F (3, 18) = 19.9, p < 0.001; saline-treated control group (31.2 ± 6.3%, n = 6) vs. ethanol-treated control group (10.2 ± 2.2%, n = 6), p < 0.001]. Both doses of KRGE administered (20 mg/kg/d and 60 mg/kg/d) significantly attenuated anxiety-like behavior [ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE20 group (23.8 ± 5.4%, n = 5), p < 0.01; ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE60 group (29.8 ± 6.1%, n = 5), p < 0.001] with more increased percentages observed in the 60 mg/kg group than in the 20 mg/kg group, however, the post hoc test failed to show a significant difference between the two groups (ethanol + KRGE20 group vs. ethanol + KRGE60 group, p > 0.05) (Fig. 3A).

Bottom Line: This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic effects of KRG extract (KRGE) during ethanol withdrawal (EW) and the involvement of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine (DA) system in it.HPLC analyses showed KRGE reversed EW-induced decreases of DA and DOPAC in a dose-dependent way.These results suggest that KRGE has anxiolytic effects during EW by improving the mesoamygdaloid DA system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, China ; Medical Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is known to have antianxiety properties. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic effects of KRG extract (KRGE) during ethanol withdrawal (EW) and the involvement of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine (DA) system in it.

Methods: Rats were treated with 3 g/kg/d of ethanol for 28 d, and subjected to 3 d of withdrawal. During EW, KRGE (20 mg/kg/d or 60 mg/kg/d, p.o.) was given to rats once/d for 3 d. Thirty min after the final dose of KRGE, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM), and plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were determined by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). In addition, concentrations of DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) were also measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: The EPM test and RIA revealed KRGE inhibited anxiety-like behavior and the over secretion of plasma CORT during EW. Furthermore, the behavioral effect was blocked by a selective DA D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist (eticlopride) but not by a selective DA D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist (SCH23390). HPLC analyses showed KRGE reversed EW-induced decreases of DA and DOPAC in a dose-dependent way. Additionally, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays showed that KRGE prevented the EW-induced reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein expression in the CeA and TH mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA).

Conclusion: These results suggest that KRGE has anxiolytic effects during EW by improving the mesoamygdaloid DA system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus