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Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

Suh SS, Hwang J, Park M, Seo HH, Kim HS, Lee JH, Moh SH, Lee TK - Mar Drugs (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS.Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner.This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje 656-830, Korea. sung-suk.suh@kiost.ac.

ABSTRACT
Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

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Expression levels of procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) (A); elastin (B); and involucrin (C) mRNAs in response to different concentrations of MAAs under UV radiation. The error bars indicate standard deviations (means ± SD, n = 6). One-way ANOVA (p < 0.05); Post hoc Tukey test: * p < 0.01 and ** p < 0.001.
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marinedrugs-12-05174-f005: Expression levels of procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) (A); elastin (B); and involucrin (C) mRNAs in response to different concentrations of MAAs under UV radiation. The error bars indicate standard deviations (means ± SD, n = 6). One-way ANOVA (p < 0.05); Post hoc Tukey test: * p < 0.01 and ** p < 0.001.

Mentions: We examined whether microalgae-derived MAAs had anti-inflammatory activity against UV irradiation. HaCaT cells, immortalized human keratinocytes, were treated with 0.03, 0.15, or 0.3 mM MAAs plus UV irradiation. qRT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA levels of the COX2 gene, which plays a key role in the generation of inflammatory responses and the expression of which is increased in inflamed tissue. UV-induced COX-2 expression decreased to that of the control UV-mock treated cells in the presence of a high concentration of mycosporine-Gly (0.3 mM), but not lower concentrations (0.03 and 0.15 mM), while expression was decreased by only the lowest concentrations of shinorine (0.03 mM) (Figure 4). However, porphyra-334 had no effect on COX2 expression at any concentration tested. Together, these data suggest that mycosporine-Gly and shinorine inhibited inflammation caused by UV radiation through modulation of COX-2 expression. Next, to evaluate the effects of MAAs on skin aging influenced by UV, we investigated the expression pattern of related genes in samples treated with both UV and MAAs. The expression levels of procollagen c-endopeptidase enhancer (PCOLCE), which binds to procollagen and enhances procollagen c-proteinase activity, and elastin mRNAs were strongly suppressed after UV irradiation (Figure 5A,B), whereas that of involucrin was elevated (Figure 5C). In the presence of MAAs, UV-suppressed levels of PCOLCE and elastin rebounded to those in UV-mock treated cells (i.e., were more highly expressed; Figure 5A,B). In contrast, the involucrin mRNA level was downregulated, except when porphyra-334 was applied (Figure 5C). When treated with both porphyra-334 and shinorine, PCOLCE expression was increased in a concentration-dependent manner (Figure 5A). Similar expression patterns were observed for elastin after treatment with mycosporine-Gly, porphyra-334, and shinorine (Figure 5B). Interestingly, elastin was more highly expressed in cells treated with MAAs and UV irradiation than in UV-mock treated cells, suggesting that MAAs modulate elastin expression via as-yet unknown regulatory mechanism(s).


Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

Suh SS, Hwang J, Park M, Seo HH, Kim HS, Lee JH, Moh SH, Lee TK - Mar Drugs (2014)

Expression levels of procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) (A); elastin (B); and involucrin (C) mRNAs in response to different concentrations of MAAs under UV radiation. The error bars indicate standard deviations (means ± SD, n = 6). One-way ANOVA (p < 0.05); Post hoc Tukey test: * p < 0.01 and ** p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4210892&req=5

marinedrugs-12-05174-f005: Expression levels of procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) (A); elastin (B); and involucrin (C) mRNAs in response to different concentrations of MAAs under UV radiation. The error bars indicate standard deviations (means ± SD, n = 6). One-way ANOVA (p < 0.05); Post hoc Tukey test: * p < 0.01 and ** p < 0.001.
Mentions: We examined whether microalgae-derived MAAs had anti-inflammatory activity against UV irradiation. HaCaT cells, immortalized human keratinocytes, were treated with 0.03, 0.15, or 0.3 mM MAAs plus UV irradiation. qRT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA levels of the COX2 gene, which plays a key role in the generation of inflammatory responses and the expression of which is increased in inflamed tissue. UV-induced COX-2 expression decreased to that of the control UV-mock treated cells in the presence of a high concentration of mycosporine-Gly (0.3 mM), but not lower concentrations (0.03 and 0.15 mM), while expression was decreased by only the lowest concentrations of shinorine (0.03 mM) (Figure 4). However, porphyra-334 had no effect on COX2 expression at any concentration tested. Together, these data suggest that mycosporine-Gly and shinorine inhibited inflammation caused by UV radiation through modulation of COX-2 expression. Next, to evaluate the effects of MAAs on skin aging influenced by UV, we investigated the expression pattern of related genes in samples treated with both UV and MAAs. The expression levels of procollagen c-endopeptidase enhancer (PCOLCE), which binds to procollagen and enhances procollagen c-proteinase activity, and elastin mRNAs were strongly suppressed after UV irradiation (Figure 5A,B), whereas that of involucrin was elevated (Figure 5C). In the presence of MAAs, UV-suppressed levels of PCOLCE and elastin rebounded to those in UV-mock treated cells (i.e., were more highly expressed; Figure 5A,B). In contrast, the involucrin mRNA level was downregulated, except when porphyra-334 was applied (Figure 5C). When treated with both porphyra-334 and shinorine, PCOLCE expression was increased in a concentration-dependent manner (Figure 5A). Similar expression patterns were observed for elastin after treatment with mycosporine-Gly, porphyra-334, and shinorine (Figure 5B). Interestingly, elastin was more highly expressed in cells treated with MAAs and UV irradiation than in UV-mock treated cells, suggesting that MAAs modulate elastin expression via as-yet unknown regulatory mechanism(s).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS.Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner.This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje 656-830, Korea. sung-suk.suh@kiost.ac.

ABSTRACT
Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus