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Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes.

Sankhla B, Sharma A, Shetty RS, Bolla SC, Gantha NS, Reddy P - J Int Soc Prev Community Dent (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001).The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001).The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability.

Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes.

Materials and methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™).

Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001).

Interpretation and conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pre-analyzed photomicrograph of buccal mucosal cells (×400)
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Figure 2: Pre-analyzed photomicrograph of buccal mucosal cells (×400)

Mentions: The PAP-stained smears were subjected to cytomorphometric analysis, using the Magnus Pro 3.0 [Figure 1] image analysis software with a Research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo). The images [Figure 2] were captured using a closed circuit device (CCD) camera attached to the research microscope. The final images captured, had a magnification of ×400 on the monitor. Fifty clearly defined cells, with good staining, were selected by systematic sampling in a stepwise manner, moving the microscope stage from left to right, and then down and across, in order to avoid measuring the same cells again. The nuclear area (NA) [Figure 3] and cytoplasmic area (CA) [Figure 3] were obtained by drawing around the nuclear and cell boundaries using the digitizer cursor. The cytoplasmic ratio and nuclear ratio (CNR) were calculated.


Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes.

Sankhla B, Sharma A, Shetty RS, Bolla SC, Gantha NS, Reddy P - J Int Soc Prev Community Dent (2014)

Pre-analyzed photomicrograph of buccal mucosal cells (×400)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4209618&req=5

Figure 2: Pre-analyzed photomicrograph of buccal mucosal cells (×400)
Mentions: The PAP-stained smears were subjected to cytomorphometric analysis, using the Magnus Pro 3.0 [Figure 1] image analysis software with a Research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo). The images [Figure 2] were captured using a closed circuit device (CCD) camera attached to the research microscope. The final images captured, had a magnification of ×400 on the monitor. Fifty clearly defined cells, with good staining, were selected by systematic sampling in a stepwise manner, moving the microscope stage from left to right, and then down and across, in order to avoid measuring the same cells again. The nuclear area (NA) [Figure 3] and cytoplasmic area (CA) [Figure 3] were obtained by drawing around the nuclear and cell boundaries using the digitizer cursor. The cytoplasmic ratio and nuclear ratio (CNR) were calculated.

Bottom Line: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001).The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001).The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability.

Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes.

Materials and methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™).

Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001).

Interpretation and conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus