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Lifestyle interventions to reduce diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk among children.

Van Buren DJ, Tibbs TL - Curr. Diab. Rep. (2014)

Bottom Line: Given the unfortunate rise in both of these diseases in pediatric populations, it is increasingly important to begin prevention efforts in childhood or prenatally.There is strong empirical support for utilizing lifestyle interventions to prevent these diseases in adults; it is not clear whether the same holds true for pediatric populations.Recommendations are made for expanding the traditional focus of lifestyle interventions from dietary and physical activity behaviors to target additional risks for these diseases such as smoking and depression in youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8134, 660 South Euclid, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA, vanbured@psychiatry.wustl.edu.

ABSTRACT
Diseases once associated with older adulthood, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Interventions designed to assist adults in modifying dietary and physical activity habits have been shown to help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults. Given the unfortunate rise in both of these diseases in pediatric populations, it is increasingly important to begin prevention efforts in childhood or prenatally. There is strong empirical support for utilizing lifestyle interventions to prevent these diseases in adults; it is not clear whether the same holds true for pediatric populations. The present review examines lifestyle management efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children across socioecological levels. Recommendations are made for expanding the traditional focus of lifestyle interventions from dietary and physical activity behaviors to target additional risks for these diseases such as smoking and depression in youth.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Components of comprehensive interventions to reduce CVD and T2D in youth
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig1: Components of comprehensive interventions to reduce CVD and T2D in youth

Mentions: Several public health initiatives have been launched at the national and international levels in an effort to decrease children’s CVD risk factors. The World Heart Federation has created an advocacy program for youth called the Youth for Health (Y4H) campaign in which children are encouraged to mentor and educate their peers on the importance of preventing CVD risk factors in their lives [10]. The American Heart Association and the Clinton Foundation sponsor The Alliance for a Healthier Generation which works across several sociocultural levels, families, schools, corporations, and health-care providers, to prevent childhood obesity which is associated with increased risk for CVD (https://www.healthiergeneration.org/). The First Lady’s signature program, “Let’s Move!,” seeks to improve children’s health and decrease CVD risk factors by increasing children’s physical activity, improving the nutritional quality of their school lunches, and increasing families’ access to healthy food and activity (http://www.letsmove.gov/). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Steps program (also known as the Steps to a Healthier US program) is another initiative targeting the prevention of chronic diseases such as T2D and CVD in youth [56]. The biomedical results from a state-level study, the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC), have recently been analyzed. This early intervention initiative targeted disadvantaged youth between ages 0 and 5 years and resulted in significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for CVD and metabolic diseases when the participants were assessed in their mid-30s. The ABC project has demonstrated the persistence of early intervention benefits into adulthood [57•], and more such longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether lifestyle-induced changes targeting cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood persist over the long term. An illustration of the necessary steps and the levels of intervention to consider when designing a community or population-level lifestyle program for reducing pediatric CVD and T2D risk by preventing obesity is provided in Fig. 1. These steps are elaborated upon in the 2014 toolkit titled, Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategies for Rural Communities [58•], providing guidance for the design and implementation of broad-based childhood obesity prevention programs.Fig. 1


Lifestyle interventions to reduce diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk among children.

Van Buren DJ, Tibbs TL - Curr. Diab. Rep. (2014)

Components of comprehensive interventions to reduce CVD and T2D in youth
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4209242&req=5

Fig1: Components of comprehensive interventions to reduce CVD and T2D in youth
Mentions: Several public health initiatives have been launched at the national and international levels in an effort to decrease children’s CVD risk factors. The World Heart Federation has created an advocacy program for youth called the Youth for Health (Y4H) campaign in which children are encouraged to mentor and educate their peers on the importance of preventing CVD risk factors in their lives [10]. The American Heart Association and the Clinton Foundation sponsor The Alliance for a Healthier Generation which works across several sociocultural levels, families, schools, corporations, and health-care providers, to prevent childhood obesity which is associated with increased risk for CVD (https://www.healthiergeneration.org/). The First Lady’s signature program, “Let’s Move!,” seeks to improve children’s health and decrease CVD risk factors by increasing children’s physical activity, improving the nutritional quality of their school lunches, and increasing families’ access to healthy food and activity (http://www.letsmove.gov/). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Steps program (also known as the Steps to a Healthier US program) is another initiative targeting the prevention of chronic diseases such as T2D and CVD in youth [56]. The biomedical results from a state-level study, the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC), have recently been analyzed. This early intervention initiative targeted disadvantaged youth between ages 0 and 5 years and resulted in significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for CVD and metabolic diseases when the participants were assessed in their mid-30s. The ABC project has demonstrated the persistence of early intervention benefits into adulthood [57•], and more such longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether lifestyle-induced changes targeting cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood persist over the long term. An illustration of the necessary steps and the levels of intervention to consider when designing a community or population-level lifestyle program for reducing pediatric CVD and T2D risk by preventing obesity is provided in Fig. 1. These steps are elaborated upon in the 2014 toolkit titled, Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategies for Rural Communities [58•], providing guidance for the design and implementation of broad-based childhood obesity prevention programs.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Given the unfortunate rise in both of these diseases in pediatric populations, it is increasingly important to begin prevention efforts in childhood or prenatally.There is strong empirical support for utilizing lifestyle interventions to prevent these diseases in adults; it is not clear whether the same holds true for pediatric populations.Recommendations are made for expanding the traditional focus of lifestyle interventions from dietary and physical activity behaviors to target additional risks for these diseases such as smoking and depression in youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8134, 660 South Euclid, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA, vanbured@psychiatry.wustl.edu.

ABSTRACT
Diseases once associated with older adulthood, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Interventions designed to assist adults in modifying dietary and physical activity habits have been shown to help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults. Given the unfortunate rise in both of these diseases in pediatric populations, it is increasingly important to begin prevention efforts in childhood or prenatally. There is strong empirical support for utilizing lifestyle interventions to prevent these diseases in adults; it is not clear whether the same holds true for pediatric populations. The present review examines lifestyle management efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in children across socioecological levels. Recommendations are made for expanding the traditional focus of lifestyle interventions from dietary and physical activity behaviors to target additional risks for these diseases such as smoking and depression in youth.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus