Infant and adult visual attention during an imitation demonstration.
Bottom Line: Infants aged 6, 9, and 12 months, and an adult comparison group, watched a video of a puppet imitation demonstration while visual behavior was recorded on an eye tracker.In contrast, adults directed their gaze primarily to the puppet.When infants were tested for their behavioral recall of the target actions, "imitators" were shown to have increased attention to the person and decreased attention to the background compared to "non-imitators." These results suggest that attention during learning is related to memory outcome and that changes in attention may be one mechanism by which manipulations to the learning event may enhance infant recall memory.
Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.Show MeSH
Mentions: The ANOVA also showed a significant AOI and action interaction, F(4, 240) = 23.15, p = .000, η2 = .50. Overall, attention to the puppet remained relatively stable across each action (“Off” M = 17.23%, SE = 1.98; “Shake” M = 14.80%, SE = 1.77; “On” M = 14.17%, SE = 1.97). Similarly, attention to the background remained relatively low across each action (“Off” M = 1.42%, SE = .36; “Shake” M = .88%, SE = .19; “On” M = 1.51%, SE = .41). Attention to the person however, increased for the “Shake” action (M = 14.75%, SE = 1.87) compared to the “Off” (M = 5.73%, SE = .76) and “On” actions (M = 4.01%, SE = .61). Thus, participants increased attention to the person when watching the “Shake” action. There was also a significant three-way interaction effect between action, AOI, and age group, F(12, 240) = 2.95, p = .001, η2 = .31 (see Fig. 3), showing that the interaction between action and AOI is different across age groups. Specifically, the infant age groups looked primarily at the person during the “Shake” action. In contrast, adults looked primarily at the puppet during each action, although attention to the person increased during the “Shake” action. Thus, adults focused on the puppet region, whilst infants focused on the person during the “Shake” action.
Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.