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Stress-induced changes in the expression of the clock protein PERIOD1 in the rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus: role of stress type, time of day, and predictability.

Al-Safadi S, Al-Safadi A, Branchaud M, Rutherford S, Dayanandan A, Robinson B, Amir S - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability.Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor.Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montréal, Quebéc, Canada; Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University, Montréal, Quebéc, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Stressful events can disrupt circadian rhythms in mammals but mechanisms underlying this disruption remain largely unknown. One hypothesis is that stress alters circadian protein expression in the forebrain, leading to functional dysregulation of the brain circadian network and consequent disruption of circadian physiological and behavioral rhythms. Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats. We found that acute exposure to processive stressors, restraint and forced swim, elevated PER1 and FOS expression in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and piriform cortex but suppressed PER1 and FOS levels exclusively in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl) and oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov). Conversely, systemic stressors, interleukin-1β and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, increased PER1 and FOS levels in all regions studied, including the CEAl and BNSTov. PER1 levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker, were unaffected by any of the stress manipulations. The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability. These results demonstrate that the expression of PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, consistent with the hypothesis that PER1 serves as a link between stress and the brain circadian network. Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor. Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene. Our observations point to a novel role for PER1 as a key player in the interface between stress and circadian rhythms.

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The effect of stress predictability on plasma corticosterone (CORT).Plasma CORT levels in response to 30 min restraint at ZT2 or ZT14 in rats previously exposed to repeated daily predictable vs. unpredictable restraint stress for 10 days during the day or night. Rats were killed 1 h after stress onset, at ZT 3 or ZT15. Means ± SEM are shown, n = 4 per group; * significant difference from corresponding control group, p<0.05.
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pone-0111166-g010: The effect of stress predictability on plasma corticosterone (CORT).Plasma CORT levels in response to 30 min restraint at ZT2 or ZT14 in rats previously exposed to repeated daily predictable vs. unpredictable restraint stress for 10 days during the day or night. Rats were killed 1 h after stress onset, at ZT 3 or ZT15. Means ± SEM are shown, n = 4 per group; * significant difference from corresponding control group, p<0.05.

Mentions: Plasma CORT levels were significantly elevated in rats exposed to unpredictable restraint for 10 days and killed 1 h after stress onset on Day 10, compared to rats exposed to predictable restraint and control rats that were not exposed to stress (F2,18 = 19.86, p<0.0001; Fig. 10). CORT levels were higher in rats exposed to stress at night (ZT15) than in those exposed to stress in the day (ZT3) (F1,18 = 9.61, p<0.01; Fig. 10). The effect of repeated daily unpredictable and predictable restraint stress on PER1 and FOS expression on Day 10 is shown in Fig. 11, with statistical analyses in Table 5. No effects were observed in the SCN (Fig. 11A). Both unpredictable and predictable restraint stress led to significant increases in PER1 and FOS levels in the PVN at ZT3 (Fig. 11B), and in the DMH and Pi in rats exposed to stress at both ZT3 and ZT15 (Figs. 11C, D). Once again, in stark contrast PER1 and FOS expression in BNSTov and CEAl were significantly suppressed, but only following repeated unpredictable restraint stress and only at ZT3 (Figs. 11E, F).


Stress-induced changes in the expression of the clock protein PERIOD1 in the rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus: role of stress type, time of day, and predictability.

Al-Safadi S, Al-Safadi A, Branchaud M, Rutherford S, Dayanandan A, Robinson B, Amir S - PLoS ONE (2014)

The effect of stress predictability on plasma corticosterone (CORT).Plasma CORT levels in response to 30 min restraint at ZT2 or ZT14 in rats previously exposed to repeated daily predictable vs. unpredictable restraint stress for 10 days during the day or night. Rats were killed 1 h after stress onset, at ZT 3 or ZT15. Means ± SEM are shown, n = 4 per group; * significant difference from corresponding control group, p<0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206498&req=5

pone-0111166-g010: The effect of stress predictability on plasma corticosterone (CORT).Plasma CORT levels in response to 30 min restraint at ZT2 or ZT14 in rats previously exposed to repeated daily predictable vs. unpredictable restraint stress for 10 days during the day or night. Rats were killed 1 h after stress onset, at ZT 3 or ZT15. Means ± SEM are shown, n = 4 per group; * significant difference from corresponding control group, p<0.05.
Mentions: Plasma CORT levels were significantly elevated in rats exposed to unpredictable restraint for 10 days and killed 1 h after stress onset on Day 10, compared to rats exposed to predictable restraint and control rats that were not exposed to stress (F2,18 = 19.86, p<0.0001; Fig. 10). CORT levels were higher in rats exposed to stress at night (ZT15) than in those exposed to stress in the day (ZT3) (F1,18 = 9.61, p<0.01; Fig. 10). The effect of repeated daily unpredictable and predictable restraint stress on PER1 and FOS expression on Day 10 is shown in Fig. 11, with statistical analyses in Table 5. No effects were observed in the SCN (Fig. 11A). Both unpredictable and predictable restraint stress led to significant increases in PER1 and FOS levels in the PVN at ZT3 (Fig. 11B), and in the DMH and Pi in rats exposed to stress at both ZT3 and ZT15 (Figs. 11C, D). Once again, in stark contrast PER1 and FOS expression in BNSTov and CEAl were significantly suppressed, but only following repeated unpredictable restraint stress and only at ZT3 (Figs. 11E, F).

Bottom Line: The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability.Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor.Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montréal, Quebéc, Canada; Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University, Montréal, Quebéc, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Stressful events can disrupt circadian rhythms in mammals but mechanisms underlying this disruption remain largely unknown. One hypothesis is that stress alters circadian protein expression in the forebrain, leading to functional dysregulation of the brain circadian network and consequent disruption of circadian physiological and behavioral rhythms. Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats. We found that acute exposure to processive stressors, restraint and forced swim, elevated PER1 and FOS expression in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and piriform cortex but suppressed PER1 and FOS levels exclusively in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl) and oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov). Conversely, systemic stressors, interleukin-1β and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, increased PER1 and FOS levels in all regions studied, including the CEAl and BNSTov. PER1 levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker, were unaffected by any of the stress manipulations. The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability. These results demonstrate that the expression of PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, consistent with the hypothesis that PER1 serves as a link between stress and the brain circadian network. Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor. Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene. Our observations point to a novel role for PER1 as a key player in the interface between stress and circadian rhythms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus