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Early immune responses in rainbow trout liver upon viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection.

Castro R, Abós B, Pignatelli J, von Gersdorff Jørgensen L, González Granja A, Buchmann K, Tafalla C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial response to VHSV in the liver, since CD3, CD8, CD4, perforin, Mx and interferon (IFN) transcription levels were up-regulated in response to VHSV.Consequently, flow cytometry analysis of CD8α+ cells in liver and spleen at day 5 post-infection revealed a decrease in the number of CD8α+ cells in the spleen and an increased population in the liver.No differences were found however in the percentages of B lymphocyte (IgM+ or IgD+) populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos (Madrid), Spain.

ABSTRACT
Among the essential metabolic functions of the liver, in mammals, a role as mediator of systemic and local innate immunity has also been reported. Although the presence of an important leukocyte population in mammalian liver is well documented, the characterization of leukocyte populations in the teleost liver has been only scarcely addressed. In the current work, we have confirmed the presence of IgM+, IgD+, IgT+, CD8α+, CD3+ cells, and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver by flow cytometry and/or immunohistochemistry analysis. Additionally, the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on the liver immune response was assessed. First, we studied the effect of viral intraperitoneal injection on the transcription of a wide selection of immune genes at days 1, 2 and 5 post-infection. These included a group of leukocyte markers genes, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), chemokines, chemokine receptor genes, and other genes involved in the early immune response and in acute phase reaction. Our results indicate that T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial response to VHSV in the liver, since CD3, CD8, CD4, perforin, Mx and interferon (IFN) transcription levels were up-regulated in response to VHSV. Consequently, flow cytometry analysis of CD8α+ cells in liver and spleen at day 5 post-infection revealed a decrease in the number of CD8α+ cells in the spleen and an increased population in the liver. No differences were found however in the percentages of B lymphocyte (IgM+ or IgD+) populations. In addition, a strong up-regulation in the transcription levels of several PRRs and chemokines was observed from the second day of infection, indicating an important role of these factors in the response of the liver to viral infections.

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Chemokine receptor transcription in liver after VHSV challenge.Rainbow trout were infected with VHSV as described in the legend of Fig. 4 and the liver sampled to determine the levels of expression of chemokine receptor genes by real-time PCR. Data are shown as the mean gene expression relative to the expression of endogenous control EF-1α ± SD. * Expression levels significantly different to those observed in mock-infected fish (p<0.05).
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pone-0111084-g006: Chemokine receptor transcription in liver after VHSV challenge.Rainbow trout were infected with VHSV as described in the legend of Fig. 4 and the liver sampled to determine the levels of expression of chemokine receptor genes by real-time PCR. Data are shown as the mean gene expression relative to the expression of endogenous control EF-1α ± SD. * Expression levels significantly different to those observed in mock-infected fish (p<0.05).

Mentions: In contrast with the strong regulation observed for some chemokines, only one chemokine receptor gene was differentially regulated in the liver in response to VHSV. CXCR4 transcription significantly increased in the liver of VHSV-infected fish compared to levels observed in liver obtained from control animals, but only after 5 days of infection (Fig. 6). These results might indicate that chemokine receptors are initially regulated at a protein level and not transcriptionally, or alternatively, that other non-described receptors are involved in the recognition of the up-regulated chemokines.


Early immune responses in rainbow trout liver upon viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection.

Castro R, Abós B, Pignatelli J, von Gersdorff Jørgensen L, González Granja A, Buchmann K, Tafalla C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Chemokine receptor transcription in liver after VHSV challenge.Rainbow trout were infected with VHSV as described in the legend of Fig. 4 and the liver sampled to determine the levels of expression of chemokine receptor genes by real-time PCR. Data are shown as the mean gene expression relative to the expression of endogenous control EF-1α ± SD. * Expression levels significantly different to those observed in mock-infected fish (p<0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206492&req=5

pone-0111084-g006: Chemokine receptor transcription in liver after VHSV challenge.Rainbow trout were infected with VHSV as described in the legend of Fig. 4 and the liver sampled to determine the levels of expression of chemokine receptor genes by real-time PCR. Data are shown as the mean gene expression relative to the expression of endogenous control EF-1α ± SD. * Expression levels significantly different to those observed in mock-infected fish (p<0.05).
Mentions: In contrast with the strong regulation observed for some chemokines, only one chemokine receptor gene was differentially regulated in the liver in response to VHSV. CXCR4 transcription significantly increased in the liver of VHSV-infected fish compared to levels observed in liver obtained from control animals, but only after 5 days of infection (Fig. 6). These results might indicate that chemokine receptors are initially regulated at a protein level and not transcriptionally, or alternatively, that other non-described receptors are involved in the recognition of the up-regulated chemokines.

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial response to VHSV in the liver, since CD3, CD8, CD4, perforin, Mx and interferon (IFN) transcription levels were up-regulated in response to VHSV.Consequently, flow cytometry analysis of CD8α+ cells in liver and spleen at day 5 post-infection revealed a decrease in the number of CD8α+ cells in the spleen and an increased population in the liver.No differences were found however in the percentages of B lymphocyte (IgM+ or IgD+) populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos (Madrid), Spain.

ABSTRACT
Among the essential metabolic functions of the liver, in mammals, a role as mediator of systemic and local innate immunity has also been reported. Although the presence of an important leukocyte population in mammalian liver is well documented, the characterization of leukocyte populations in the teleost liver has been only scarcely addressed. In the current work, we have confirmed the presence of IgM+, IgD+, IgT+, CD8α+, CD3+ cells, and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver by flow cytometry and/or immunohistochemistry analysis. Additionally, the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on the liver immune response was assessed. First, we studied the effect of viral intraperitoneal injection on the transcription of a wide selection of immune genes at days 1, 2 and 5 post-infection. These included a group of leukocyte markers genes, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), chemokines, chemokine receptor genes, and other genes involved in the early immune response and in acute phase reaction. Our results indicate that T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial response to VHSV in the liver, since CD3, CD8, CD4, perforin, Mx and interferon (IFN) transcription levels were up-regulated in response to VHSV. Consequently, flow cytometry analysis of CD8α+ cells in liver and spleen at day 5 post-infection revealed a decrease in the number of CD8α+ cells in the spleen and an increased population in the liver. No differences were found however in the percentages of B lymphocyte (IgM+ or IgD+) populations. In addition, a strong up-regulation in the transcription levels of several PRRs and chemokines was observed from the second day of infection, indicating an important role of these factors in the response of the liver to viral infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus