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An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Huang B, Brooks JP, Glascock AL, Sheth NU, Vaginal Microbiome ConsortiumStrauss JF, Jefferson KK, Buck GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease.The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely.Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

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Phylogenetic tree of 16SrRNA shows uncultured “Ca. M. girerdii” clusters most closely with other uncultivated organisms in the Pneumoniae Group.The maximum likelihood tree was inferred by RAxML 7.2.7 using the gamma-distributed heterogeneity rate categories with 1,000 bootstraps. The 16S rRNA gene alignments were manually inspected. The Hominis Group is shaded in blue, the Pneumoniae Group in green, the Hemoplasma Group in gray and the Spiroplasma Group in purple. The 16S rRNA sequence of “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_M1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_PA1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU JB1 and “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_G1 were identical. “Ca. M. girerdii” groups most closely with “Mnola”, which shows 100% identity in 16S rRNA sequence, uncultivated organisms from the oral sample of a low birth weight infant (HG764209, HG764210, and HG764212) and uncultivated species from rumen and termite gut in the Pneumoniae Group. A partial 16S rRNA sequence from the vaginal sample of a woman who delivered full term (JX871253) also exhibits 99% identity with “Ca. M. girerdii”, but was not included in the analysis due to its length.
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pone-0110943-g004: Phylogenetic tree of 16SrRNA shows uncultured “Ca. M. girerdii” clusters most closely with other uncultivated organisms in the Pneumoniae Group.The maximum likelihood tree was inferred by RAxML 7.2.7 using the gamma-distributed heterogeneity rate categories with 1,000 bootstraps. The 16S rRNA gene alignments were manually inspected. The Hominis Group is shaded in blue, the Pneumoniae Group in green, the Hemoplasma Group in gray and the Spiroplasma Group in purple. The 16S rRNA sequence of “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_M1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_PA1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU JB1 and “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_G1 were identical. “Ca. M. girerdii” groups most closely with “Mnola”, which shows 100% identity in 16S rRNA sequence, uncultivated organisms from the oral sample of a low birth weight infant (HG764209, HG764210, and HG764212) and uncultivated species from rumen and termite gut in the Pneumoniae Group. A partial 16S rRNA sequence from the vaginal sample of a woman who delivered full term (JX871253) also exhibits 99% identity with “Ca. M. girerdii”, but was not included in the analysis due to its length.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes shows that “Ca. M. girerdii” is most closely related to other uncultivated organisms identified by 16S rRNA sequence: the organism reported by Martin et al. [2], an organism identified by Costello et al. in oral samples of a low birth weight neonate [16], and other organisms from bovine rumen [35], the gut of termites [36]–[38] and Asiatic elephant and Somali wild ass feces [39] (Figure 4). Interestingly, the environments of the gut of lower termites, the rumen of cattle and other foregut fermenters and the cecum of hindgut fermenters (e.g., Asiatic elephant and Somali wild ass) are all models of symbiosis where diverse groups of organisms including bacteria and protozoa contribute to carbohydrate fermentation and benefit the host by assisting with plant digestion.


An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Huang B, Brooks JP, Glascock AL, Sheth NU, Vaginal Microbiome ConsortiumStrauss JF, Jefferson KK, Buck GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Phylogenetic tree of 16SrRNA shows uncultured “Ca. M. girerdii” clusters most closely with other uncultivated organisms in the Pneumoniae Group.The maximum likelihood tree was inferred by RAxML 7.2.7 using the gamma-distributed heterogeneity rate categories with 1,000 bootstraps. The 16S rRNA gene alignments were manually inspected. The Hominis Group is shaded in blue, the Pneumoniae Group in green, the Hemoplasma Group in gray and the Spiroplasma Group in purple. The 16S rRNA sequence of “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_M1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_PA1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU JB1 and “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_G1 were identical. “Ca. M. girerdii” groups most closely with “Mnola”, which shows 100% identity in 16S rRNA sequence, uncultivated organisms from the oral sample of a low birth weight infant (HG764209, HG764210, and HG764212) and uncultivated species from rumen and termite gut in the Pneumoniae Group. A partial 16S rRNA sequence from the vaginal sample of a woman who delivered full term (JX871253) also exhibits 99% identity with “Ca. M. girerdii”, but was not included in the analysis due to its length.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206474&req=5

pone-0110943-g004: Phylogenetic tree of 16SrRNA shows uncultured “Ca. M. girerdii” clusters most closely with other uncultivated organisms in the Pneumoniae Group.The maximum likelihood tree was inferred by RAxML 7.2.7 using the gamma-distributed heterogeneity rate categories with 1,000 bootstraps. The 16S rRNA gene alignments were manually inspected. The Hominis Group is shaded in blue, the Pneumoniae Group in green, the Hemoplasma Group in gray and the Spiroplasma Group in purple. The 16S rRNA sequence of “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_M1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_PA1, “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU JB1 and “Ca. M. girerdii” VCU_G1 were identical. “Ca. M. girerdii” groups most closely with “Mnola”, which shows 100% identity in 16S rRNA sequence, uncultivated organisms from the oral sample of a low birth weight infant (HG764209, HG764210, and HG764212) and uncultivated species from rumen and termite gut in the Pneumoniae Group. A partial 16S rRNA sequence from the vaginal sample of a woman who delivered full term (JX871253) also exhibits 99% identity with “Ca. M. girerdii”, but was not included in the analysis due to its length.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes shows that “Ca. M. girerdii” is most closely related to other uncultivated organisms identified by 16S rRNA sequence: the organism reported by Martin et al. [2], an organism identified by Costello et al. in oral samples of a low birth weight neonate [16], and other organisms from bovine rumen [35], the gut of termites [36]–[38] and Asiatic elephant and Somali wild ass feces [39] (Figure 4). Interestingly, the environments of the gut of lower termites, the rumen of cattle and other foregut fermenters and the cecum of hindgut fermenters (e.g., Asiatic elephant and Somali wild ass) are all models of symbiosis where diverse groups of organisms including bacteria and protozoa contribute to carbohydrate fermentation and benefit the host by assisting with plant digestion.

Bottom Line: Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease.The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely.Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus