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An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Huang B, Brooks JP, Glascock AL, Sheth NU, Vaginal Microbiome ConsortiumStrauss JF, Jefferson KK, Buck GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease.The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely.Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

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Cluster analysis of mid-vaginal samples positive for ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ.Relative abundance of microbial taxa in mid-vaginal bacterial communities of ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ positive women is shown. The dendrogram was generated using Ward‚Äôs method with Manhattan distance. This analysis includes only mid-vaginal samples that exhibited at least 0.1% ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ by 16S rDNA profiling. Clinical diagnosis is indicated in the first bar, and presence of T. vaginalis by RT-PCR is indicated in the second bar (orange designates a negative result and pink designates a positive result). The three samples dominated by L. crispatus and the three samples with the highest prevalence of L. iners were negative for T. vaginalis.
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pone-0110943-g002: Cluster analysis of mid-vaginal samples positive for ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ.Relative abundance of microbial taxa in mid-vaginal bacterial communities of ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ positive women is shown. The dendrogram was generated using Ward‚Äôs method with Manhattan distance. This analysis includes only mid-vaginal samples that exhibited at least 0.1% ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ by 16S rDNA profiling. Clinical diagnosis is indicated in the first bar, and presence of T. vaginalis by RT-PCR is indicated in the second bar (orange designates a negative result and pink designates a positive result). The three samples dominated by L. crispatus and the three samples with the highest prevalence of L. iners were negative for T. vaginalis.

Mentions: Interestingly, of 22 women with no diagnosis who were positive for ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ, 14 were also positive for T. vaginalis (Table 1). Lactobacillus crispatus is associated with decreased rates of T. vaginalis infection [12], and we found that the three ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ positive women with a predominance of L. crispatus were negative for T. vaginalis (Figures 2 and S1). Thus, although our data are supportive of a dependent relationship, it appears that ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ may not absolutely require T. vaginalis to colonize the human vagina. Our data suggest vaginal carriage of the new mycoplasma is associated with elevated vaginal pH and African American race (Table 3), risk factors for preterm birth [26], which are also associated with BV [27] and trichomoniasis [28]. Given the tight association of the mycoplasma with T. vaginalis, it is not possible to determine whether the organism is independently associated with these factors.


An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Huang B, Brooks JP, Glascock AL, Sheth NU, Vaginal Microbiome ConsortiumStrauss JF, Jefferson KK, Buck GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Cluster analysis of mid-vaginal samples positive for ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ.Relative abundance of microbial taxa in mid-vaginal bacterial communities of ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ positive women is shown. The dendrogram was generated using Ward‚Äôs method with Manhattan distance. This analysis includes only mid-vaginal samples that exhibited at least 0.1% ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ by 16S rDNA profiling. Clinical diagnosis is indicated in the first bar, and presence of T. vaginalis by RT-PCR is indicated in the second bar (orange designates a negative result and pink designates a positive result). The three samples dominated by L. crispatus and the three samples with the highest prevalence of L. iners were negative for T. vaginalis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206474&req=5

pone-0110943-g002: Cluster analysis of mid-vaginal samples positive for ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ.Relative abundance of microbial taxa in mid-vaginal bacterial communities of ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ positive women is shown. The dendrogram was generated using Ward‚Äôs method with Manhattan distance. This analysis includes only mid-vaginal samples that exhibited at least 0.1% ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ by 16S rDNA profiling. Clinical diagnosis is indicated in the first bar, and presence of T. vaginalis by RT-PCR is indicated in the second bar (orange designates a negative result and pink designates a positive result). The three samples dominated by L. crispatus and the three samples with the highest prevalence of L. iners were negative for T. vaginalis.
Mentions: Interestingly, of 22 women with no diagnosis who were positive for ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ, 14 were also positive for T. vaginalis (Table 1). Lactobacillus crispatus is associated with decreased rates of T. vaginalis infection [12], and we found that the three ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ positive women with a predominance of L. crispatus were negative for T. vaginalis (Figures 2 and S1). Thus, although our data are supportive of a dependent relationship, it appears that ‚ÄúCa. M. girerdii‚ÄĚ may not absolutely require T. vaginalis to colonize the human vagina. Our data suggest vaginal carriage of the new mycoplasma is associated with elevated vaginal pH and African American race (Table 3), risk factors for preterm birth [26], which are also associated with BV [27] and trichomoniasis [28]. Given the tight association of the mycoplasma with T. vaginalis, it is not possible to determine whether the organism is independently associated with these factors.

Bottom Line: Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease.The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely.Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus