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An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Huang B, Brooks JP, Glascock AL, Sheth NU, Vaginal Microbiome ConsortiumStrauss JF, Jefferson KK, Buck GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease.The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely.Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

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Detection of “Ca. Mycoplasma girerdii” in mid-vaginal samples.Panel (A) shows relative abundance of major taxonomic groups in “Ca. M. girerdii” positive samples (1% 16S rRNA threshold): “Ca. M. girerdii” is colored red (A). Light colored bars represent other taxa. Dark blue circles represent samples positive for T. vaginalis by qRT-PCR, light gray circles represent negative samples. Panels (B–E) show fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of bacteria in mid-vaginal samples from two participants with clinically diagnosed trichomoniasis (subject 1, panels B, C and D; subject 2, panel E) by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Most bacteria were detected with fluorescein-labeled broad-range bacteria probe Eub338 (turquoise). “Ca. M. girerdii” was also stained with a Cy5-labeled probe targeting 16S rDNA (red). Nuclei were labeled with 4′6′-diamidine-2-phenylindole, dehydrochloride (DAPI, blue). Negative control with reverse complementary probe of Eub338 did not hybridize to any bacteria (data not shown). Scale bar = 10 µm.
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pone-0110943-g001: Detection of “Ca. Mycoplasma girerdii” in mid-vaginal samples.Panel (A) shows relative abundance of major taxonomic groups in “Ca. M. girerdii” positive samples (1% 16S rRNA threshold): “Ca. M. girerdii” is colored red (A). Light colored bars represent other taxa. Dark blue circles represent samples positive for T. vaginalis by qRT-PCR, light gray circles represent negative samples. Panels (B–E) show fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of bacteria in mid-vaginal samples from two participants with clinically diagnosed trichomoniasis (subject 1, panels B, C and D; subject 2, panel E) by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Most bacteria were detected with fluorescein-labeled broad-range bacteria probe Eub338 (turquoise). “Ca. M. girerdii” was also stained with a Cy5-labeled probe targeting 16S rDNA (red). Nuclei were labeled with 4′6′-diamidine-2-phenylindole, dehydrochloride (DAPI, blue). Negative control with reverse complementary probe of Eub338 did not hybridize to any bacteria (data not shown). Scale bar = 10 µm.

Mentions: Up to half of all T. vaginalis infections are asymptomatic and undiagnosed [11]. We performed real-time qRT-PCR on all mid-vaginal samples positive for “Ca. M. girerdii” and found that 49 of the 51 (96%) women who carried the mycoplasma at a 1% threshold by 16S rRNA gene profiling also carry T. vaginalis (Figure 1A; Table 1). Even at a lower 16S rRNA threshold of 0.1%, 61 of 72 (85%) of women who carried “Ca. M. girerdii” were T. vaginalis positive. Thus, “Ca. M. girerdii” exhibits an unusually strong correlation with trichomoniasis. We also found that “Ca. M. girerdii” was associated with both of the previously described genotypes of T. vaginalis [23], [24], type 1 and type 2 (Figure S3), indicating a broad-range association with this infectious disease. Both T. vaginalis genotypes have been reported in the HIV-positive women [25]. Additional studies are needed to determine whether “Ca. M. girerdii” co-infection contributes to the increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission or to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with trichomoniasis.


An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Huang B, Brooks JP, Glascock AL, Sheth NU, Vaginal Microbiome ConsortiumStrauss JF, Jefferson KK, Buck GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Detection of “Ca. Mycoplasma girerdii” in mid-vaginal samples.Panel (A) shows relative abundance of major taxonomic groups in “Ca. M. girerdii” positive samples (1% 16S rRNA threshold): “Ca. M. girerdii” is colored red (A). Light colored bars represent other taxa. Dark blue circles represent samples positive for T. vaginalis by qRT-PCR, light gray circles represent negative samples. Panels (B–E) show fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of bacteria in mid-vaginal samples from two participants with clinically diagnosed trichomoniasis (subject 1, panels B, C and D; subject 2, panel E) by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Most bacteria were detected with fluorescein-labeled broad-range bacteria probe Eub338 (turquoise). “Ca. M. girerdii” was also stained with a Cy5-labeled probe targeting 16S rDNA (red). Nuclei were labeled with 4′6′-diamidine-2-phenylindole, dehydrochloride (DAPI, blue). Negative control with reverse complementary probe of Eub338 did not hybridize to any bacteria (data not shown). Scale bar = 10 µm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone-0110943-g001: Detection of “Ca. Mycoplasma girerdii” in mid-vaginal samples.Panel (A) shows relative abundance of major taxonomic groups in “Ca. M. girerdii” positive samples (1% 16S rRNA threshold): “Ca. M. girerdii” is colored red (A). Light colored bars represent other taxa. Dark blue circles represent samples positive for T. vaginalis by qRT-PCR, light gray circles represent negative samples. Panels (B–E) show fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of bacteria in mid-vaginal samples from two participants with clinically diagnosed trichomoniasis (subject 1, panels B, C and D; subject 2, panel E) by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Most bacteria were detected with fluorescein-labeled broad-range bacteria probe Eub338 (turquoise). “Ca. M. girerdii” was also stained with a Cy5-labeled probe targeting 16S rDNA (red). Nuclei were labeled with 4′6′-diamidine-2-phenylindole, dehydrochloride (DAPI, blue). Negative control with reverse complementary probe of Eub338 did not hybridize to any bacteria (data not shown). Scale bar = 10 µm.
Mentions: Up to half of all T. vaginalis infections are asymptomatic and undiagnosed [11]. We performed real-time qRT-PCR on all mid-vaginal samples positive for “Ca. M. girerdii” and found that 49 of the 51 (96%) women who carried the mycoplasma at a 1% threshold by 16S rRNA gene profiling also carry T. vaginalis (Figure 1A; Table 1). Even at a lower 16S rRNA threshold of 0.1%, 61 of 72 (85%) of women who carried “Ca. M. girerdii” were T. vaginalis positive. Thus, “Ca. M. girerdii” exhibits an unusually strong correlation with trichomoniasis. We also found that “Ca. M. girerdii” was associated with both of the previously described genotypes of T. vaginalis [23], [24], type 1 and type 2 (Figure S3), indicating a broad-range association with this infectious disease. Both T. vaginalis genotypes have been reported in the HIV-positive women [25]. Additional studies are needed to determine whether “Ca. M. girerdii” co-infection contributes to the increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission or to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with trichomoniasis.

Bottom Line: Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease.The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely.Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America; Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus