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The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

Moreira Dde O, Leite GR, Ferreira de Siqueira M, Coutinho BR, Zanon MS, Mendes SL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality.The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia.Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Biologia Animal), Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

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Maned sloth’s (Bradypus torquatus) strongholds and recommended survey areas.Current fragments of the Atlantic Forest, combined with the potential geographic distribution modeling and the federal and state strictly protected areas. We used each fragment larger than 0.1 km2 to build a buffer. Protected areas: 1. Estação Ecológica de Wenceslau Guimarães, 2. Parque Estadual Serra do Conduru, 3. Reserva Biológica de Una, 4. Reserva Biológica de Comboios, 5. Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, 6. Reserva Biológica de Duas Bocas, 7. Parque Estadual de Pedra Azul, 8. Parque Estadual do Forno Grande, 9. Parque Nacional do Caparaó, 10. Parque Estadual do Desengano, 11. Reserva Biológica União, 12. Reserva Biológica Poço das Antas, 13. Parque Estadual dos Três Picos, 14. Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso, 15. Parque Nacional Serra dos Órgãos, 16. Reserva Biológica de Araras, 17. Reserva Biológica do Tinguá. Cartographic bases: [32], [79], CNUC/MMA. Geographic Projection; South America Albers Equal Area Conic.
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pone-0110929-g006: Maned sloth’s (Bradypus torquatus) strongholds and recommended survey areas.Current fragments of the Atlantic Forest, combined with the potential geographic distribution modeling and the federal and state strictly protected areas. We used each fragment larger than 0.1 km2 to build a buffer. Protected areas: 1. Estação Ecológica de Wenceslau Guimarães, 2. Parque Estadual Serra do Conduru, 3. Reserva Biológica de Una, 4. Reserva Biológica de Comboios, 5. Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, 6. Reserva Biológica de Duas Bocas, 7. Parque Estadual de Pedra Azul, 8. Parque Estadual do Forno Grande, 9. Parque Nacional do Caparaó, 10. Parque Estadual do Desengano, 11. Reserva Biológica União, 12. Reserva Biológica Poço das Antas, 13. Parque Estadual dos Três Picos, 14. Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso, 15. Parque Nacional Serra dos Órgãos, 16. Reserva Biológica de Araras, 17. Reserva Biológica do Tinguá. Cartographic bases: [32], [79], CNUC/MMA. Geographic Projection; South America Albers Equal Area Conic.

Mentions: The suitable forest fragment model, indicated three regions with elevated forest remnants and high suitability: the central region of Rio de Janeiro, central Espírito Santo, and the central-coast of Bahia (Figure 6). With regard to the protected areas, 58 reserves overlap to the binary ensemble model of the maned sloth; however only 17 covering 2,122 km2 are located in areas with forest remnants and high suitability (importance value higher than 48%; Figure 6).


The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

Moreira Dde O, Leite GR, Ferreira de Siqueira M, Coutinho BR, Zanon MS, Mendes SL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Maned sloth’s (Bradypus torquatus) strongholds and recommended survey areas.Current fragments of the Atlantic Forest, combined with the potential geographic distribution modeling and the federal and state strictly protected areas. We used each fragment larger than 0.1 km2 to build a buffer. Protected areas: 1. Estação Ecológica de Wenceslau Guimarães, 2. Parque Estadual Serra do Conduru, 3. Reserva Biológica de Una, 4. Reserva Biológica de Comboios, 5. Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, 6. Reserva Biológica de Duas Bocas, 7. Parque Estadual de Pedra Azul, 8. Parque Estadual do Forno Grande, 9. Parque Nacional do Caparaó, 10. Parque Estadual do Desengano, 11. Reserva Biológica União, 12. Reserva Biológica Poço das Antas, 13. Parque Estadual dos Três Picos, 14. Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso, 15. Parque Nacional Serra dos Órgãos, 16. Reserva Biológica de Araras, 17. Reserva Biológica do Tinguá. Cartographic bases: [32], [79], CNUC/MMA. Geographic Projection; South America Albers Equal Area Conic.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206454&req=5

pone-0110929-g006: Maned sloth’s (Bradypus torquatus) strongholds and recommended survey areas.Current fragments of the Atlantic Forest, combined with the potential geographic distribution modeling and the federal and state strictly protected areas. We used each fragment larger than 0.1 km2 to build a buffer. Protected areas: 1. Estação Ecológica de Wenceslau Guimarães, 2. Parque Estadual Serra do Conduru, 3. Reserva Biológica de Una, 4. Reserva Biológica de Comboios, 5. Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, 6. Reserva Biológica de Duas Bocas, 7. Parque Estadual de Pedra Azul, 8. Parque Estadual do Forno Grande, 9. Parque Nacional do Caparaó, 10. Parque Estadual do Desengano, 11. Reserva Biológica União, 12. Reserva Biológica Poço das Antas, 13. Parque Estadual dos Três Picos, 14. Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso, 15. Parque Nacional Serra dos Órgãos, 16. Reserva Biológica de Araras, 17. Reserva Biológica do Tinguá. Cartographic bases: [32], [79], CNUC/MMA. Geographic Projection; South America Albers Equal Area Conic.
Mentions: The suitable forest fragment model, indicated three regions with elevated forest remnants and high suitability: the central region of Rio de Janeiro, central Espírito Santo, and the central-coast of Bahia (Figure 6). With regard to the protected areas, 58 reserves overlap to the binary ensemble model of the maned sloth; however only 17 covering 2,122 km2 are located in areas with forest remnants and high suitability (importance value higher than 48%; Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality.The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia.Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Biologia Animal), Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus