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The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

Moreira Dde O, Leite GR, Ferreira de Siqueira M, Coutinho BR, Zanon MS, Mendes SL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality.The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia.Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Biologia Animal), Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

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Projection of the nine environmental variables and the maned sloth points records on the first and second factor planes.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the association of the maned sloth points records and the nine environmental variables used in the distribution modelling procedure. Sergipe (SE), Bahia (BA), Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Elevation (ELV), mean monthly temperature range (TMR), temperature seasonality (TS), maximum temperature of warmest month (TWM), minimum temperature of coldest month (TCM), temperature annual range (TAR), annual precipitation (PA), precipitation of wettest month (PWM) and precipitation of driest month (PDM). Points records localities are available (Table S1).
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pone-0110929-g005: Projection of the nine environmental variables and the maned sloth points records on the first and second factor planes.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the association of the maned sloth points records and the nine environmental variables used in the distribution modelling procedure. Sergipe (SE), Bahia (BA), Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Elevation (ELV), mean monthly temperature range (TMR), temperature seasonality (TS), maximum temperature of warmest month (TWM), minimum temperature of coldest month (TCM), temperature annual range (TAR), annual precipitation (PA), precipitation of wettest month (PWM) and precipitation of driest month (PDM). Points records localities are available (Table S1).

Mentions: To identify the spatial correlation of maned sloth occurrence points and the environmental variables through PCA, we observed that the two first axes explain more than 80% of the environmental data variation (Figure 5). The first axis (PC1) shows a latitudinal gradient, splitting two environments groups. The first one shows a population group located in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, and the more important environment variables that explains the distribution are mean monthly temperature range, temperature annual range, temperature seasonality, precipitation of wettest month and elevation. The second group is formed by populations located in the states of Bahia and Sergipe, and the most important environmental variables associated are annual precipitation, precipitation of driest month, minimum temperature of coldest month, and maximum temperature of warmest month.


The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

Moreira Dde O, Leite GR, Ferreira de Siqueira M, Coutinho BR, Zanon MS, Mendes SL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Projection of the nine environmental variables and the maned sloth points records on the first and second factor planes.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the association of the maned sloth points records and the nine environmental variables used in the distribution modelling procedure. Sergipe (SE), Bahia (BA), Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Elevation (ELV), mean monthly temperature range (TMR), temperature seasonality (TS), maximum temperature of warmest month (TWM), minimum temperature of coldest month (TCM), temperature annual range (TAR), annual precipitation (PA), precipitation of wettest month (PWM) and precipitation of driest month (PDM). Points records localities are available (Table S1).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206454&req=5

pone-0110929-g005: Projection of the nine environmental variables and the maned sloth points records on the first and second factor planes.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the association of the maned sloth points records and the nine environmental variables used in the distribution modelling procedure. Sergipe (SE), Bahia (BA), Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Elevation (ELV), mean monthly temperature range (TMR), temperature seasonality (TS), maximum temperature of warmest month (TWM), minimum temperature of coldest month (TCM), temperature annual range (TAR), annual precipitation (PA), precipitation of wettest month (PWM) and precipitation of driest month (PDM). Points records localities are available (Table S1).
Mentions: To identify the spatial correlation of maned sloth occurrence points and the environmental variables through PCA, we observed that the two first axes explain more than 80% of the environmental data variation (Figure 5). The first axis (PC1) shows a latitudinal gradient, splitting two environments groups. The first one shows a population group located in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, and the more important environment variables that explains the distribution are mean monthly temperature range, temperature annual range, temperature seasonality, precipitation of wettest month and elevation. The second group is formed by populations located in the states of Bahia and Sergipe, and the most important environmental variables associated are annual precipitation, precipitation of driest month, minimum temperature of coldest month, and maximum temperature of warmest month.

Bottom Line: Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality.The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia.Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Biologia Animal), Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus