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Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT protein.

Kicinska A, Leluk J, Jarmuszkiewicz W - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs.The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa.We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioenergetics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT
STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil), a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds) or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups.

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Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of 59 STAT proteins from selected Ophistokonta and Amoebozoa.The results were obtained using Phylip.
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pone-0111345-g004: Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of 59 STAT proteins from selected Ophistokonta and Amoebozoa.The results were obtained using Phylip.

Mentions: To further investigate the position of the A. castellanii STAT among the other STAT proteins, analyses were performed on a second dataset. This dataset included the STAT protein sequences of eukaryotes, including the A. castellanii STAT, Amoebozoa STATs and 19 other eukaryotes that represent the most sequenced lineages from Opisthokonta. These sequences are from roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans), fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus), acorn worm (Saccoglossus kowalevskii), sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), filasterean (Capsaspora owczarzaki), sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis), zebrafish (Danio rerio), freshwater snail (Biomphalaria glabrata), Jerdon's jumping ant (Harpegnathos saltator), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis), chicken (Gallus gallus), Carolina anole (Anolis carolinensis), Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis), cattle (Bos taurus), house mouse (Mus musculus) and human (Homo sapiens). We included some closely related organisms, e.g., G. gallus and F. albicollis, to access the variation within closely related species. The assembly of the STAT protein sequences generated a multiple sequence alignment and phylograms. The multiple sequence alignment is shown in Figure S3. The maximum likelihood analyses results of these sequences using various tools are shown in Figures 4 and S4. Regardless of the algorithm used, all of these studies showed that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups. A. castellanii sequences XP_004338884 and XP_004339235 occupy basal positions in the clade. It has been previously found that the only SH2 domain-containing proteins from Amoebozoa that have identifiable orthologs in Opisthokonta are the transcriptional regulators Spt6 and STATs [40]. Interestingly, there is no evidence of STAT signaling in Fungi. This observation suggests that the STAT proteins in Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta are a product of convergent evolution, represent examples of horizontal gene transfer from the choanoflagellate line or they were lost in Fungi. Given the conserved STAT protein sequence and architecture, the last hypothesis seems to be the most likely [7].


Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT protein.

Kicinska A, Leluk J, Jarmuszkiewicz W - PLoS ONE (2014)

Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of 59 STAT proteins from selected Ophistokonta and Amoebozoa.The results were obtained using Phylip.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206453&req=5

pone-0111345-g004: Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood method of 59 STAT proteins from selected Ophistokonta and Amoebozoa.The results were obtained using Phylip.
Mentions: To further investigate the position of the A. castellanii STAT among the other STAT proteins, analyses were performed on a second dataset. This dataset included the STAT protein sequences of eukaryotes, including the A. castellanii STAT, Amoebozoa STATs and 19 other eukaryotes that represent the most sequenced lineages from Opisthokonta. These sequences are from roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans), fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus), acorn worm (Saccoglossus kowalevskii), sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), filasterean (Capsaspora owczarzaki), sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis), zebrafish (Danio rerio), freshwater snail (Biomphalaria glabrata), Jerdon's jumping ant (Harpegnathos saltator), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis), chicken (Gallus gallus), Carolina anole (Anolis carolinensis), Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis), cattle (Bos taurus), house mouse (Mus musculus) and human (Homo sapiens). We included some closely related organisms, e.g., G. gallus and F. albicollis, to access the variation within closely related species. The assembly of the STAT protein sequences generated a multiple sequence alignment and phylograms. The multiple sequence alignment is shown in Figure S3. The maximum likelihood analyses results of these sequences using various tools are shown in Figures 4 and S4. Regardless of the algorithm used, all of these studies showed that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups. A. castellanii sequences XP_004338884 and XP_004339235 occupy basal positions in the clade. It has been previously found that the only SH2 domain-containing proteins from Amoebozoa that have identifiable orthologs in Opisthokonta are the transcriptional regulators Spt6 and STATs [40]. Interestingly, there is no evidence of STAT signaling in Fungi. This observation suggests that the STAT proteins in Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta are a product of convergent evolution, represent examples of horizontal gene transfer from the choanoflagellate line or they were lost in Fungi. Given the conserved STAT protein sequence and architecture, the last hypothesis seems to be the most likely [7].

Bottom Line: A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs.The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa.We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioenergetics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.

ABSTRACT
STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil), a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds) or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups.

Show MeSH