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The effects of cold exposure on leukocytes, hormones and cytokines during acute exercise in humans.

Gagnon DD, Gagnon SS, Rintamäki H, Törmäkangas T, Puukka K, Herzig KH, Kyröläinen H - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs.Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities.Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology and Biocenter of Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO2) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO2peak) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22°C (NT), and in 0°C (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.4±0.2°C whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.5±1.4°C and 9.3±2.5°C respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs. COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT vs. COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs. COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exercise-induced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse this benefit.

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Z scores for growth factors, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NT, COLD and SHIV within LOW and MOD.*Significantly different between LOW and MOD (p<0.05). †Significantly different from NT (p<0.05). ‡Significantly different from NT and SHIV (p<0.05).
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pone-0110774-g002: Z scores for growth factors, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NT, COLD and SHIV within LOW and MOD.*Significantly different between LOW and MOD (p<0.05). †Significantly different from NT (p<0.05). ‡Significantly different from NT and SHIV (p<0.05).

Mentions: Changes in pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory as well as growth factor cytokines are presented in Tables 3, 4, and 5. Correlation coefficients between cytokines and HR, core temperature, skin temperature, and hormones in all environmental conditions are presented in Tables S1, S2, and S3. When weighted and indexed through a z score (Fig. 2), the immune response for growth factors, indicated a greater response in MOD SHIV compared to LOW SHIV. Furthermore, within MOD, cytokine responses in COLD was significantly lower than both NT and SHIV. The pro-inflammatory cytokines response also indicated a greater response of SHIV in MOD compared to LOW. Finally, pro-inflammatory cytokines in SHIV were lower than NT in LOW, and lower in COLD compared to SHIV and NT in MOD.


The effects of cold exposure on leukocytes, hormones and cytokines during acute exercise in humans.

Gagnon DD, Gagnon SS, Rintamäki H, Törmäkangas T, Puukka K, Herzig KH, Kyröläinen H - PLoS ONE (2014)

Z scores for growth factors, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NT, COLD and SHIV within LOW and MOD.*Significantly different between LOW and MOD (p<0.05). †Significantly different from NT (p<0.05). ‡Significantly different from NT and SHIV (p<0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206434&req=5

pone-0110774-g002: Z scores for growth factors, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NT, COLD and SHIV within LOW and MOD.*Significantly different between LOW and MOD (p<0.05). †Significantly different from NT (p<0.05). ‡Significantly different from NT and SHIV (p<0.05).
Mentions: Changes in pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory as well as growth factor cytokines are presented in Tables 3, 4, and 5. Correlation coefficients between cytokines and HR, core temperature, skin temperature, and hormones in all environmental conditions are presented in Tables S1, S2, and S3. When weighted and indexed through a z score (Fig. 2), the immune response for growth factors, indicated a greater response in MOD SHIV compared to LOW SHIV. Furthermore, within MOD, cytokine responses in COLD was significantly lower than both NT and SHIV. The pro-inflammatory cytokines response also indicated a greater response of SHIV in MOD compared to LOW. Finally, pro-inflammatory cytokines in SHIV were lower than NT in LOW, and lower in COLD compared to SHIV and NT in MOD.

Bottom Line: Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs.Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities.Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology and Biocenter of Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO2) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO2peak) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22°C (NT), and in 0°C (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.4±0.2°C whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.5±1.4°C and 9.3±2.5°C respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs. COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT vs. COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs. COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exercise-induced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse this benefit.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus