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The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

Mohan AM, Bibby KJ, Lipus D, Hammack RW, Gregory KB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing.Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water.These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

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Normalized abundance (values of 0–1) of contigs belonging to selected Level 2 functional categories within associated Level 1 categories in source water (SW), produced water day 1 (PW day 1) and produced water day 9 (PW day 9).Functional annotations were assigned based on the Subsystems database. The affiliations of Level 2 categories to Level 1 categories are coded as follows CS- Clustering based subsystems; C- Carbohydrates; PM- Protein metabolism; DNA- DNA metabolism; R- Respiration; SR- Stress response; SM- Sulfur metabolism; DS- Dormancy and sporulation; IAM- Iron acquisition and metabolism.
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pone-0107682-g007: Normalized abundance (values of 0–1) of contigs belonging to selected Level 2 functional categories within associated Level 1 categories in source water (SW), produced water day 1 (PW day 1) and produced water day 9 (PW day 9).Functional annotations were assigned based on the Subsystems database. The affiliations of Level 2 categories to Level 1 categories are coded as follows CS- Clustering based subsystems; C- Carbohydrates; PM- Protein metabolism; DNA- DNA metabolism; R- Respiration; SR- Stress response; SM- Sulfur metabolism; DS- Dormancy and sporulation; IAM- Iron acquisition and metabolism.

Mentions: The SEED subsystems database [42], was used to predict the metabolic potential of fracturing source water and produced water samples. Level 1 indicates the broadest set of functional categories to which sequences are assigned, and Level 2 refers to more specific functional assignments within Level 1 categories. The abundance of contigs designated to Level 1 functional categories is illustrated in Figure 5. The metabolic potential (based on Level 1 and Level 2 functional categories) between the samples was compared in a normalized manner (Figure 6, 7) to account for differences in community structure, size of the library, gene content between samples and to effectively compare low abundance functional categories [43]. Read normalization was performed within the MG-RAST analysis pipeline, in accordance with standards for metagenomic analysis.


The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

Mohan AM, Bibby KJ, Lipus D, Hammack RW, Gregory KB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Normalized abundance (values of 0–1) of contigs belonging to selected Level 2 functional categories within associated Level 1 categories in source water (SW), produced water day 1 (PW day 1) and produced water day 9 (PW day 9).Functional annotations were assigned based on the Subsystems database. The affiliations of Level 2 categories to Level 1 categories are coded as follows CS- Clustering based subsystems; C- Carbohydrates; PM- Protein metabolism; DNA- DNA metabolism; R- Respiration; SR- Stress response; SM- Sulfur metabolism; DS- Dormancy and sporulation; IAM- Iron acquisition and metabolism.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206270&req=5

pone-0107682-g007: Normalized abundance (values of 0–1) of contigs belonging to selected Level 2 functional categories within associated Level 1 categories in source water (SW), produced water day 1 (PW day 1) and produced water day 9 (PW day 9).Functional annotations were assigned based on the Subsystems database. The affiliations of Level 2 categories to Level 1 categories are coded as follows CS- Clustering based subsystems; C- Carbohydrates; PM- Protein metabolism; DNA- DNA metabolism; R- Respiration; SR- Stress response; SM- Sulfur metabolism; DS- Dormancy and sporulation; IAM- Iron acquisition and metabolism.
Mentions: The SEED subsystems database [42], was used to predict the metabolic potential of fracturing source water and produced water samples. Level 1 indicates the broadest set of functional categories to which sequences are assigned, and Level 2 refers to more specific functional assignments within Level 1 categories. The abundance of contigs designated to Level 1 functional categories is illustrated in Figure 5. The metabolic potential (based on Level 1 and Level 2 functional categories) between the samples was compared in a normalized manner (Figure 6, 7) to account for differences in community structure, size of the library, gene content between samples and to effectively compare low abundance functional categories [43]. Read normalization was performed within the MG-RAST analysis pipeline, in accordance with standards for metagenomic analysis.

Bottom Line: Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing.Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water.These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

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