Limits...
Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

Hormann AM, Vom Saal FS, Nagel SC, Stahlhut RW, Moyer CL, Ellersieck MR, Welshons WV, Toutain PL, Taylor JA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min.It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism.The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

BPA in urine and serum of 12 men and 12 women who held thermal receipt paper with dry hands for 4 min, Panel A: the total concentration of BPA in urine (expressed relative to creatinine) at baseline and 60-min after holding the thermal receipt.Panel B: unconjugated BPA (uBPA) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt. Panel C: conjugated BPA (BPA-G and BPA-S) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt paper. * = significant difference between males and females (P<0.001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206219&req=5

pone-0110509-g005: BPA in urine and serum of 12 men and 12 women who held thermal receipt paper with dry hands for 4 min, Panel A: the total concentration of BPA in urine (expressed relative to creatinine) at baseline and 60-min after holding the thermal receipt.Panel B: unconjugated BPA (uBPA) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt. Panel C: conjugated BPA (BPA-G and BPA-S) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt paper. * = significant difference between males and females (P<0.001).

Mentions: The data for female subject #3 are not included in the pharmacokinetic data (Table 2) calculated for the remaining 6 subjects that had blood collected from their contaminated arm but who had undetectable baseline levels of BPA on their hands when they first entered the CRC and also had very low baseline uBPA in serum (0.23±0.15 ng/mL; N = 6]. These 6 subjects showed a dramatic increase in serum uBPA after holding the thermal receipt and eating 10 contaminated fries. Females had a greater Cmax and maximum increase relative to baseline in serum uBPA and BPA-G than males after holding the thermal paper, while males reached peak levels of uBPA (Tmax) later than females. The average uBPA value, based on the area under the concentration-time curve [AUC (0–90 min)] did not differ between males and females, while for BPA-G, the AUC (0–90 min) was greater for females than males. The ratio of BPA-G/uBPA based on the average AUC (0–90 min) was very low (0.35±0.12 for males and 1.82±0.30 for females), consistent with routes of absorption of BPA (dermal and sublingual) that bypass first pass metabolism [19], [20].


Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

Hormann AM, Vom Saal FS, Nagel SC, Stahlhut RW, Moyer CL, Ellersieck MR, Welshons WV, Toutain PL, Taylor JA - PLoS ONE (2014)

BPA in urine and serum of 12 men and 12 women who held thermal receipt paper with dry hands for 4 min, Panel A: the total concentration of BPA in urine (expressed relative to creatinine) at baseline and 60-min after holding the thermal receipt.Panel B: unconjugated BPA (uBPA) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt. Panel C: conjugated BPA (BPA-G and BPA-S) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt paper. * = significant difference between males and females (P<0.001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4206219&req=5

pone-0110509-g005: BPA in urine and serum of 12 men and 12 women who held thermal receipt paper with dry hands for 4 min, Panel A: the total concentration of BPA in urine (expressed relative to creatinine) at baseline and 60-min after holding the thermal receipt.Panel B: unconjugated BPA (uBPA) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt. Panel C: conjugated BPA (BPA-G and BPA-S) in serum at baseline and 30 min after holding the thermal receipt paper. * = significant difference between males and females (P<0.001).
Mentions: The data for female subject #3 are not included in the pharmacokinetic data (Table 2) calculated for the remaining 6 subjects that had blood collected from their contaminated arm but who had undetectable baseline levels of BPA on their hands when they first entered the CRC and also had very low baseline uBPA in serum (0.23±0.15 ng/mL; N = 6]. These 6 subjects showed a dramatic increase in serum uBPA after holding the thermal receipt and eating 10 contaminated fries. Females had a greater Cmax and maximum increase relative to baseline in serum uBPA and BPA-G than males after holding the thermal paper, while males reached peak levels of uBPA (Tmax) later than females. The average uBPA value, based on the area under the concentration-time curve [AUC (0–90 min)] did not differ between males and females, while for BPA-G, the AUC (0–90 min) was greater for females than males. The ratio of BPA-G/uBPA based on the average AUC (0–90 min) was very low (0.35±0.12 for males and 1.82±0.30 for females), consistent with routes of absorption of BPA (dermal and sublingual) that bypass first pass metabolism [19], [20].

Bottom Line: We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min.It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism.The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus