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Task conflict in the Stroop task: When Stroop interference decreases as Stroop facilitation increases in a low task conflict context.

Parris BA - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In the present study participants completed two blocks of the Stroop task, one in which the response-stimulus interval (RSI) was 3500 ms and one in which RSI was 200 ms.Such a finding would be problematic for models of Stroop effects that predict these indices of performance should be affected in tandem.A crossover interaction is reported supporting these predictions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University Poole, UK.

ABSTRACT
In the present study participants completed two blocks of the Stroop task, one in which the response-stimulus interval (RSI) was 3500 ms and one in which RSI was 200 ms. It was expected that, in line with previous research, the shorter RSI would induce a low Task Conflict context by increasing focus on the color identification goal in the Stroop task and lead to a novel finding of an increase in facilitation and simultaneous decrease in interference. Such a finding would be problematic for models of Stroop effects that predict these indices of performance should be affected in tandem. A crossover interaction is reported supporting these predictions. As predicted, the shorter RSI resulted in incongruent and congruent trial reaction times (RTs) decreasing relative to a static neutral baseline condition; hence interference decreased as facilitation increased. An explanatory model (expanding on the work of Goldfarb and Henik, 2007) is presented that: (1) Shows how under certain conditions the predictions from single mechanism models hold true (i.e., when Task conflict is held constant); (2) Shows how it is possible that interference can be affected by an experimental manipulation that leaves facilitation apparently untouched; and (3) Predicts that facilitation cannot be independently affected by an experimental manipulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Figure showing a crossover interaction where facilitation increases and interference decreases as RSI decreases.
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Figure 2: Figure showing a crossover interaction where facilitation increases and interference decreases as RSI decreases.

Mentions: The data were entered into a 2 (RSI: Short, Long) × 3 (Word Type: Incongruent, Neutral, Congruent) repeated measures ANOVA. Analysis revealed a main effect of word type, F(2,68) = 31.050, p < 0.001, = 0.477, a main effect of RSI, F(1,34) = 6.063, p < 0.05, = 0.151, and an interaction between word type and RSI, F(2,68) = 6.638, p < 0.01, = 0.163. To investigate the interaction further, the data were non-orthogonally decomposed to look for partial interaction effects. Facilitation effects were investigated using a 2 (RSI: Short, Long) × 2 (Word Type: Congruent, Neutral) ANOVA which revealed main effect of word type, F(1,34) = 18.722, p < 0.001, = 0.335, a significant main effect of RSI, F(1,34) = 4.804, p < 0.05, = 0.124, and an interaction where F(1,34) = 11.594, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.254. This analysis showed that, as predicted, facilitation increased in the short RSI condition. The 2 (RSI: Short, Long) × 2 (Word Type: Incongruent, Neutral) ANOVA yielded a main effect of word type, F(1,34) = 21.161, p < 0.001, = 0.384, and no main effect of RSI F(1,34) = 3.186, p > 0.05. The interaction was significant where F(1,34) = 5.815, p < 0.05, = 0.146. This analysis showed that interference decreased in the short RSI condition, replicating the finding by De Jong et al. (1999). Overall this analysis revealed a crossover interaction. Figure 2 depicts this interaction and Table 1 shows the mean RTs and standard deviations as a function of RSI.


Task conflict in the Stroop task: When Stroop interference decreases as Stroop facilitation increases in a low task conflict context.

Parris BA - Front Psychol (2014)

Figure showing a crossover interaction where facilitation increases and interference decreases as RSI decreases.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202807&req=5

Figure 2: Figure showing a crossover interaction where facilitation increases and interference decreases as RSI decreases.
Mentions: The data were entered into a 2 (RSI: Short, Long) × 3 (Word Type: Incongruent, Neutral, Congruent) repeated measures ANOVA. Analysis revealed a main effect of word type, F(2,68) = 31.050, p < 0.001, = 0.477, a main effect of RSI, F(1,34) = 6.063, p < 0.05, = 0.151, and an interaction between word type and RSI, F(2,68) = 6.638, p < 0.01, = 0.163. To investigate the interaction further, the data were non-orthogonally decomposed to look for partial interaction effects. Facilitation effects were investigated using a 2 (RSI: Short, Long) × 2 (Word Type: Congruent, Neutral) ANOVA which revealed main effect of word type, F(1,34) = 18.722, p < 0.001, = 0.335, a significant main effect of RSI, F(1,34) = 4.804, p < 0.05, = 0.124, and an interaction where F(1,34) = 11.594, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.254. This analysis showed that, as predicted, facilitation increased in the short RSI condition. The 2 (RSI: Short, Long) × 2 (Word Type: Incongruent, Neutral) ANOVA yielded a main effect of word type, F(1,34) = 21.161, p < 0.001, = 0.384, and no main effect of RSI F(1,34) = 3.186, p > 0.05. The interaction was significant where F(1,34) = 5.815, p < 0.05, = 0.146. This analysis showed that interference decreased in the short RSI condition, replicating the finding by De Jong et al. (1999). Overall this analysis revealed a crossover interaction. Figure 2 depicts this interaction and Table 1 shows the mean RTs and standard deviations as a function of RSI.

Bottom Line: In the present study participants completed two blocks of the Stroop task, one in which the response-stimulus interval (RSI) was 3500 ms and one in which RSI was 200 ms.Such a finding would be problematic for models of Stroop effects that predict these indices of performance should be affected in tandem.A crossover interaction is reported supporting these predictions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University Poole, UK.

ABSTRACT
In the present study participants completed two blocks of the Stroop task, one in which the response-stimulus interval (RSI) was 3500 ms and one in which RSI was 200 ms. It was expected that, in line with previous research, the shorter RSI would induce a low Task Conflict context by increasing focus on the color identification goal in the Stroop task and lead to a novel finding of an increase in facilitation and simultaneous decrease in interference. Such a finding would be problematic for models of Stroop effects that predict these indices of performance should be affected in tandem. A crossover interaction is reported supporting these predictions. As predicted, the shorter RSI resulted in incongruent and congruent trial reaction times (RTs) decreasing relative to a static neutral baseline condition; hence interference decreased as facilitation increased. An explanatory model (expanding on the work of Goldfarb and Henik, 2007) is presented that: (1) Shows how under certain conditions the predictions from single mechanism models hold true (i.e., when Task conflict is held constant); (2) Shows how it is possible that interference can be affected by an experimental manipulation that leaves facilitation apparently untouched; and (3) Predicts that facilitation cannot be independently affected by an experimental manipulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus