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Sonification as a possible stroke rehabilitation strategy.

Scholz DS, Wu L, Pirzer J, Schneider J, Rollnik JD, Großbach M, Altenmüller EO - Front Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: In order to examine and validate the effectiveness of sonification in stroke rehabilitation, we developed a computer program, termed "SonicPointer": Participants' computer mouse movements were sonified in real-time with complex tones.Furthermore, the learning curves were steepest when pitch was mapped onto the vertical and brightness onto the horizontal axis.This seems to be the optimal constellation for this two-dimensional sonification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Music Physiology and Musicians' Medicine, University of Music, Drama and Media Hannover, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Despite cerebral stroke being one of the main causes of acquired impairments of motor skills worldwide, well-established therapies to improve motor functions are sparse. Recently, attempts have been made to improve gross motor rehabilitation by mapping patient movements to sound, termed sonification. Sonification provides additional sensory input, supplementing impaired proprioception. However, to date no established sonification-supported rehabilitation protocol strategy exists. In order to examine and validate the effectiveness of sonification in stroke rehabilitation, we developed a computer program, termed "SonicPointer": Participants' computer mouse movements were sonified in real-time with complex tones. Tone characteristics were derived from an invisible parameter mapping, overlaid on the computer screen. The parameters were: tone pitch and tone brightness. One parameter varied along the x, the other along the y axis. The order of parameter assignment to axes was balanced in two blocks between subjects so that each participant performed under both conditions. Subjects were naive to the overlaid parameter mappings and its change between blocks. In each trial a target tone was presented and subjects were instructed to indicate its origin with respect to the overlaid parameter mappings on the screen as quickly and accurately as possible with a mouse click. Twenty-six elderly healthy participants were tested. Required time and two-dimensional accuracy were recorded. Trial duration times and learning curves were derived. We hypothesized that subjects performed in one of the two parameter-to-axis-mappings better, indicating the most natural sonification. Generally, subjects' localizing performance was better on the pitch axis as compared to the brightness axis. Furthermore, the learning curves were steepest when pitch was mapped onto the vertical and brightness onto the horizontal axis. This seems to be the optimal constellation for this two-dimensional sonification.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic timeline of one experimental block. In the left lower quadrant, the exposure phase when the sound stimulus was presented is shown. This was followed by the “finding-phase” in which the subject searched the origin of the previously heard but on the screen invisible target sound stimulus using the sonified mouse movement as feedback. Finally the subjects clicked at the supposed target position.
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Figure 2: Schematic timeline of one experimental block. In the left lower quadrant, the exposure phase when the sound stimulus was presented is shown. This was followed by the “finding-phase” in which the subject searched the origin of the previously heard but on the screen invisible target sound stimulus using the sonified mouse movement as feedback. Finally the subjects clicked at the supposed target position.

Mentions: During the actual test subjects saw a white screen and were presented with a sound for 4 s. The presentation of the stimulus was followed by a pause of 2 s. Subjects then were instructed to move the mouse cursor to the position on the screen where they felt the sound might have originated from based on their experience from the exploration phase. During the subsequent mouse movement the sound output changed in real-time according to the current mapping rules of pitch and brightness and the position of the mouse cursor. Subjects could use this feedback to compare their working memory trace of the target sound with the current position's sound. Subjects were asked to click the mouse at the position they felt the initial stimulus had been derived from as fast but as precisely as possible. Figure 2 shows the experimental procedure. The entire test consisted of 100 trials (lasting about 40 min in total), subdivided into 50 trials of condition. 1, a 10s-break in-between, and 50 trials of condition 2. Pitch and brightness mappings onto the two axes were presented in two blocks with the order balanced across subjects.


Sonification as a possible stroke rehabilitation strategy.

Scholz DS, Wu L, Pirzer J, Schneider J, Rollnik JD, Großbach M, Altenmüller EO - Front Neurosci (2014)

Schematic timeline of one experimental block. In the left lower quadrant, the exposure phase when the sound stimulus was presented is shown. This was followed by the “finding-phase” in which the subject searched the origin of the previously heard but on the screen invisible target sound stimulus using the sonified mouse movement as feedback. Finally the subjects clicked at the supposed target position.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4202805&req=5

Figure 2: Schematic timeline of one experimental block. In the left lower quadrant, the exposure phase when the sound stimulus was presented is shown. This was followed by the “finding-phase” in which the subject searched the origin of the previously heard but on the screen invisible target sound stimulus using the sonified mouse movement as feedback. Finally the subjects clicked at the supposed target position.
Mentions: During the actual test subjects saw a white screen and were presented with a sound for 4 s. The presentation of the stimulus was followed by a pause of 2 s. Subjects then were instructed to move the mouse cursor to the position on the screen where they felt the sound might have originated from based on their experience from the exploration phase. During the subsequent mouse movement the sound output changed in real-time according to the current mapping rules of pitch and brightness and the position of the mouse cursor. Subjects could use this feedback to compare their working memory trace of the target sound with the current position's sound. Subjects were asked to click the mouse at the position they felt the initial stimulus had been derived from as fast but as precisely as possible. Figure 2 shows the experimental procedure. The entire test consisted of 100 trials (lasting about 40 min in total), subdivided into 50 trials of condition. 1, a 10s-break in-between, and 50 trials of condition 2. Pitch and brightness mappings onto the two axes were presented in two blocks with the order balanced across subjects.

Bottom Line: In order to examine and validate the effectiveness of sonification in stroke rehabilitation, we developed a computer program, termed "SonicPointer": Participants' computer mouse movements were sonified in real-time with complex tones.Furthermore, the learning curves were steepest when pitch was mapped onto the vertical and brightness onto the horizontal axis.This seems to be the optimal constellation for this two-dimensional sonification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Music Physiology and Musicians' Medicine, University of Music, Drama and Media Hannover, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Despite cerebral stroke being one of the main causes of acquired impairments of motor skills worldwide, well-established therapies to improve motor functions are sparse. Recently, attempts have been made to improve gross motor rehabilitation by mapping patient movements to sound, termed sonification. Sonification provides additional sensory input, supplementing impaired proprioception. However, to date no established sonification-supported rehabilitation protocol strategy exists. In order to examine and validate the effectiveness of sonification in stroke rehabilitation, we developed a computer program, termed "SonicPointer": Participants' computer mouse movements were sonified in real-time with complex tones. Tone characteristics were derived from an invisible parameter mapping, overlaid on the computer screen. The parameters were: tone pitch and tone brightness. One parameter varied along the x, the other along the y axis. The order of parameter assignment to axes was balanced in two blocks between subjects so that each participant performed under both conditions. Subjects were naive to the overlaid parameter mappings and its change between blocks. In each trial a target tone was presented and subjects were instructed to indicate its origin with respect to the overlaid parameter mappings on the screen as quickly and accurately as possible with a mouse click. Twenty-six elderly healthy participants were tested. Required time and two-dimensional accuracy were recorded. Trial duration times and learning curves were derived. We hypothesized that subjects performed in one of the two parameter-to-axis-mappings better, indicating the most natural sonification. Generally, subjects' localizing performance was better on the pitch axis as compared to the brightness axis. Furthermore, the learning curves were steepest when pitch was mapped onto the vertical and brightness onto the horizontal axis. This seems to be the optimal constellation for this two-dimensional sonification.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus